Positive Health News

Report No 14 Summer Issue, 1997

Return from the Jungle -

An Interview WITH CHRIS DAFOE -

Knox and Carrigan offer lymph node biopsy testing for HHV-6, variant A

Cytokines and Cellular Immunity, by Robert Darga MD

Nature Medicine: NIH/NIAID Officials question the value of rapidly rising CD4’s & Dr. Ho’s “kitchen sink” theory

Mary Enig Ph.D. on lauric acid (from coconut oil) inactivating HIV and other lipid envelope viruses

Trans Fatty acids weaken host defense against viral infections at the cellular level

Updated information on low-cost immune-based therapies and anti-viral therapies (botanicals/herbs)

VOODOO Diagnostics? Questions are raised about the accuracy of PCR and bDNA viral load testing for HIV

Interviews: Billi Goldberg - Mark Correa

KNOX AND CARRIGAN OFFER TESTING OF LYMPH NODE BIOPSIES FOR HHV-6(A)

June 1, 1997 Mark Konlee

In my last newsletter, the lead story was AIDS Puzzle Solved. The disease model was reconstructed based on scientific studies that indicate the primary pathogen in AIDS is Human Herpes Virus 6, variant A (HHV-6A) with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) acting as a co-factor to stimulate HHV-6A replication. Ever since I broke the story of the role of HHV-6A in AIDS in Positive Health News, Report No 10 (Jan., 1996), I have received hundreds of requests from persons HIV+ or with Chronic Fatigue Immune Dysfunction Syndrome (CFIDS) who wanted to know where to obtain this test. In a phone call to Donald Carrigan, formerly associated with the Medical College of Wisconsin, I was told that Konstance Knox and Donald Carrigan have opened up a private lab to test for HHV-6 and other herpes viruses including Cytomegalovirus(CMV).

I asked Donald Carrigan if they were still finding HHV-6A in 100% of the lymph node biopsies of persons with AIDS. His reply was that “With AIDS, we found HHV-6 in 23 out of 23 cases” My reaction: “That sounds like 100% to me.” I asked him about CFIDS. Carrigan said that they found HHV-6 in over 50% of the CFIDS cases although the data is limited. Our conversation covered a number of related topics.

Mark: Will your lab identify the subset of HHV-6 involved in the biopsy tests?

Carrigan: First, we will do a general screening test for HHV-6 to determine if is present, then we will do a staining test for the subsets A or B. The CDC (Center for Disease Control) asked us to set up a lab to do this, as many labs do not know how to test for HHV-6 or identify the subsets. They indicated that they needed a state-certified lab to refer people to for HHV-6 testing.

Mark: Labs that use PCR of the blood to test for HHV-6 do not distinguish between the variant A and B strains. Are not these viruses profoundly different?

Carrigan: They certainly are. We have found the variant A strain to be the predominant form present in the lymph node biopsies of HIV infected patients. The variant A strain can destroy the germinal centers of the lymph nodes, where antigen presentation takes place, as well as infect lung, spleen, liver and kidney tissues. Our own research indicates that the variant B strain is not cytopathic (destroys cells) whereas the variant A strain of HHV-6 is cytopathic.

Mark: Will physicians in states outside of Wisconsin be able to send lymph node biopsies to test for HHV-6?

Carrigan: In most of the 50 states, this will be possible except for some states that require their own certification.

Mark: Are you continuing research with HHV-6?

Carrigan: Yes, but not recently with AIDS since we left the Medical College. We are setting up a non-profit foundation to raise money for HHV-6 research.

Mark: What will it cost for a lymph node biopsy test for HHV-6 (A or B)?

Carrigan: We are working hard to make this test available to everyone. We do have some financial backing from persons who believe in our research. It will be reasonably priced.

Mark: I would like to ask you a question regarding some of our own research efforts at Keep Hope Alive. Since HHV-6A is actively replicating and destroying lymphoid tissue, I reasoned that this virus must be the primary cause of swollen lymph nodes in persons in AIDS and in those CFIDS persons who also have active HHV-6 replication. In testing out different protocols and therapies, I’ve reasoned that if the swollen lymph nodes are partially or completely reduced that it would indicate effectiveness against HHV-6A. Is this plausible?

Carrigan: Yes. I would think that when HHV-6A is causing swollen lymph nodes and if a protocol you are using reduces the lymph node swelling that it has an effect against HHV-6.

Mark: Thank you for sharing this news with our readers. The lab is expected to be open by July, 1997. Physicians can contact Donald Carrigan and Konstance Knox at -

Herpes Virus Diagnostics, Inc.

12346 West Layton Ave

Greenfield, WI 53228

Ph No 414-529-3780 Fax 414-529-3782.

What is the role of HIV in AIDS? Sieczkowski L, et al found that the HIV virus “tat gene enhances replication of human herpesvirus 6.” Virology, 1995, Aug 20;211(2):544-53.

For more information on the role of HHV-6 in AIDS, search AIDSLINE at the National Library of Medicine (800-638-8480). The National Library of Medicine (NLM) contains over 195 abstracts from scientific studies on the role of HHV-6 in AIDS. Also, see our last newsletter - AIDS PUZZLE SOLVED (Report No 13)

CYTOKINES AND CELLULAR IMMUNITY by Robert J. Darga M.D.

(The following article is reprinted from MEDICAL ALERT (VOL 1, NO 5), a publication of NAPWA, 1413 K Street, NW, Washington, DC 20005 ph no 202-898-0414. Special thanks to Jim Prentice, Milwaukee, WI, for saving this article and bringing it to my attention. The article points out the two different type of responses of CD4 cells, called TH1(cellular) or TH2 (humoral). My commentary which follows the article points out that the TH2 response is ineffective against most opportunistic infections (O.I.s) while the TH1 response is very effective against most O.I.s.)

Scientists have learned much about the structure and function of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) but have not been able to develop an effective approach to stop the virus from reproducing and destroying the immune systems of those infected. Long-term survivors of HIV infection, as well as those who seem to have been exposed to but not infected with HIV, appear to have done what the pharmaceutical industry can not - stop HIV in its tracks. Those who are able to maintain a stable immune system despite HIV infection raise an important question: “What is different about these survivors?” In many cases the answer is a strong response by the cellular arm of the immune system. These observations have moved the study of the immunopathology of HIV disease to the forefront of AIDS research. Alternations in cellular immunity and cytokine dysregulation are at the heart of this new direction in HIV immunopathology.

The immune system, like most systems in our bodies, has built-in redundancy and overlapping functions. Two different methods exist by which the body fights infections: humoral immunity results in the production of antibodies to neutralize foreign invaders outside of the cells, while cellular immunity directs Killer T-cells (CD8 Cytotoxic Lymphocytes) to attack microorganisms or abnormal cells at the sites of infection inside the cells. In many cases an infection is fought with both arms of the immune system; at other times only one is needed to control the infection.

TH1 VERSUS TH2 - THE TWO TYPES OF CD4 RESPONSES

The type of immune response to HIV infection was discussed at some length after a presentation by Dr. Jonas Salk at the VIII International Conference on AIDS in Amsterdam. Dr. Salk theorized that the immune response to HIV is determined by the functional state of a patient’s CD4 cells. These cells exist in a TH1 or TH2 state, each of which will create a different response to the infection. Since last year, many other prominent researchers, notably Drs. Clerici and Shearer at the National Cancer Institute, have substantiated much of the theory presented by Dr. Salk.

The immune system is made up of many different types of cells, most of which have several functions. They may destroy foreign invaders, produce chemicals to stimulate or suppress other immune cells or act as a form of memory so that the immune system can respond more efficiently the next time the individual encounters the same infectious agent. The immune response is dependent on the recognition of a foreign particle, or antigen, as abnormal and the presentation of this particle to the system. The process of recognition and presentation is carried out by a group of cells known as macrophages (“large eating cells” in the Greek). The macrophages circulate throughout the body, consuming any antigens they may come across and presenting them to CD4 cells in the lymph nodes. The functional state of the CD4 cell, TH1 (cellular) or TH2 (humoral), determines how the CD4 proceeds and what type of immune response will occur.

Cells in the TH1 state will activate certain CD8 (Cytotoxic Lymphocytes also known as Killer T cells) in response to an antigen. These cells have the capacity to kill invading organisms and abnormal cells (also virus infected cells). After activation they are known as cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). The activation of CTLs is greatly enhanced in the presence of several powerful proteins produced by the immune system, called cytokines. The cytokines which enhance cellular immunity are Interluken 2 (IL2), Interluken 12 (IL12) and gamma interferon. Cellular killing of HIV-infected cells may be at the heart of the cellular immune response which seems to be so effective in long-term survivors.

If the macrophage presents the antigen to CD4 cells in the TH2 state, the CD4 cells will activate B cells in order to produce antibodies. These antibodies are “designed” to neutralize the specific antigen (virus, bacteria, fungus etc) presented. The activation of B cells and creation of antibodies in response to foreign antigens is known as humoral immunity. The incredible flexibility of the immune system allows millions of different antibodies to be produced. Unfortunately, antibodies produced in response to HIV do not effectively neutralize the infection.

CYTOKINES

The humoral immune response is enhanced by a different set of cytokines than in the cellular response. This set includes Interlukens 4, 5, 6 and 10 (IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10) and alpha interferon. As HIV infection progresses from the asymptomatic stage to advanced disease, the immune response appears to shift from the more effective TH1 state to the ineffective TH2 state. There is significant interest and debate among scientists about what may cause the CD4 cells to shift from one state to the other; can they be shifted back again? It is known that these cells are stimulated by and produce small amounts of cytokines. A given cytokine can have different effects on various cells, stimulating some and suppressing others. The main cytokines are numbered from 1 through 12...Other biologically active proteins, such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF), may have cytokine functions as well.

In a very complicated interaction, cytokines produced by CD4 cells in the TH1 state (IL-2, IL-12 and gamma interferon) act to stimulate their target cells (in this case CD8 CTLs) and other TH1 CD4 cells while simultaneously inhibiting the activity of CD4 cells in the TH2 state and their target cells (B cells). In a similar fashion, TH2 CD4 cells produce IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10 and alpha interferon, which stimulate the humoral arm of the immune system and suppress cellular immunity. The balance between these chemicals probably determines how an individual will respond to their HIV infection.

TESTING THE THEORY

Recognizing that the immune system responds in certain ways to certain stimuli is one thing - but showing that these shifts actually occur in patients with HIV is another matter all together. The logical thing to do would be to measure the number of cells in TH1 and TH2 state in a large number of patients at various points in their disease progression. Unfortunately, these cells are indistinguishable under the microscope and bear no unique markers by which they can be separated. Therefore, functional assays would have to be developed in order to determine what the patients’ cells actually do when presented with antigens.

Drs. Clerici and Shearer at the National Cancer Institute developed an assay in which peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs- a mixture of all the immune cells which circulate in the blood) from patients with HIV were grown in cell culture stimulated with different antigens. The amount and type of cellular proliferation and the amount of IL-2 produced by the PBMCs in response to antigen were measured. The production of other cytokines could be measured with the same system. Their results showed that asymptomatic patients responded much like normal individuals with brisk cellular proliferation and elevated IL-2 levels in response to 3 different antigens of increasing immunological intensity. Patients whose PBMCs had lost the ability to respond to the weakest antigen were more likely to have had clinical symptoms. Those who did not respond to even the strongest antigenic stimuli were most likely to have progressed to AIDS. (Clerici, M and Shearer, GM. A TH1-TH2 switch is a critical step in the etiology of HIV infection. Immunology Today, Vol 14, No 3, 1993).

These findings today confirm other research that has shown a decrease in the level of IL-2 in the blood as the CD4 count drops and HIV disease progresses. Similar assays found that gamma interferon also dropped with advancing disease and that IL-4 (a TH2 cytokine) increased with disease, except among the sickest patients, who probably didn’t have enough CD4 cells to mount either response (humoral or cellular).

INTERLUKEN 12

Another cytokine that may have treatment implications is IL-12. Research has shown that this recently discovered TH1 cytokine helps activate CD8 cells, as IL-2 does, but also stimulated another type of cell called a Natural Killer Cell (Gazzinelli, RT, et al. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, July 1, 1993). When activated, these cells are extremely successful eliminators of foreign substances. In the presence of IL-12, these cells are activated and begin to produce gamma interferon, a cytokine usually produced by activated TH1 CD4 cells. This situation raises the prospect of an alternate pathway by which the body can achieve cellular immunity, without CD4 involvement. To date, all of this work has been done in cell cultures and in specially bred mice. The therapeutic implications for IL-12 are so exciting that purification and commercial production will probably occur in the near future.

END OF ARTICLE

Proposed: NIH/NIAID trials with low-dose triple cytokine combination therapy - gamma interferon, IL-2 and IL-12

Mark Konlee

In the public’s limited understanding of immunology, people have been led to believe that a CD4 cell is a CD4 cell, and that all are equally functional, and the more the better. Robert Darga’s article on Cytokines and Cellular Immunity clearly shows that all CD4 cells are NOT equal. A CD4 with the TH1 switch turned on produces cytokines (gamma interferon, IL-2, IL-12) that enhance the CD8 Cytoxic Lymphocytes (CTLs) that are effective against HIV and other infections (opportunistic infections) that are inside the cells. CD8 CTLs either clear the infection from the cells or destroy them. The problem with protocols that lead to rapidly rising CD4s is that they are usually not preventing many of the opportunistic infections involved in AIDS because the CD4s of the TH2 type produce the cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, IL-6 and IL-10) that stimulate the B cells to produce antibodies. Antibodies, even if they are neutralizing, are only effective against viral infections outside the cell or on the cell surface. Antibodies alone cannot clear infections “inside” the cells - the virus producing factories.

Since I expect several hundred top government officials at NIH and NIAID to read this newsletter, I am asking you to consider doing a trial to test a very low dose combination of the three known most important cytokines that the TH1 type CD4s would provide in a competent immune system - that is - gamma interferon, Interlukin 2 and Interluken 12. An experiment combining all three cytokines has not been tried. By keeping the dose very low, all side effects should be avoidable. If the experiment is successful, CD8 cytotoxic lymphocytes will reduce the viral burden of a wide spectrum of intracellular infections, including HIV, HHV-6A, CMV, Herpes, TB, MAC, candida ablicans and many more. A triple combination cytokine protocol to stimulate cell-mediated immunity (CMI) could put AIDS in remission for years, perhaps indefinitely and at a low cost. Perhaps, after the most effective dose with no side effects has been established in controlled studies, it could be made available to the PWA community in a single tablet taken once a day sublingually.

A low cost immune-based treatment could save U.S. Taxpayers billions of dollars now been spent on drug cocktail combinations whose long term safety is in serious doubt. A low-cost immune-based treatment would help poorer nation in Africa that cannot afford the expensive drug cocktail combinations, even if they should prove effective. For PWA’s time is of essence. They cannot wait for the pharmaceutical companies to sponsor expensive immune-based trials when the dollar return on immune-based therapies will be far less than what it would be for anti-viral therapies. Public funds need to be allocated now for the development of low-cost immune-based therapies. Immune-based therapies offer the best hope for non-toxic treatments that they can live with for years to come. Other immune-based therapies that need NIAID/NIH controlled trials include Naltrexone, DNCB, Beta 1, 3 Glucan and Antigen-Specific transfer Factor. Antigen specific transfer factor should help restore the CD4 repertoire of sensitivity to specific antigens for which the CD4s may have lost memory. It would be a serious mistake to limit immune-based therapies to IL-2 without testing the broad spectrum of other very promising immune-based therapies.

MARY ENIG Ph.D. ON THE EFFECTS OF COCONUT OIL ON SERUM CHOLESTEROL LEVELS AND HDLs

Dr. Mary Enig MS (Nutritional Sciences), Ph.D. did original research that showed a positive link between vegetable oil and cancer and a negative correlation for animal fat. She originated comprehensive analysis of trans fatty acid components of over 200 foods. Trans fatty acids are formed when vegetable oils are hydrogenated or heated to high temperatures. With high temperatures, trans fatty acids are fats that are twisted, which alter their natural “cis” shape. She studied how the trans fatty acids from foods affected the liver’s mixed function oxidase enzyme system that metabolizes drugs and environmental pollutants in the body. An important finding of this latter study was that laboratory animals fed experimental diets containing trans fatty acids have altered activity of this enzyme system. These results were partly responsible for the review of the “Health Aspects of Dietary Trans Fatty Acids” held by the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology, Life Sciences Research Office, at the request of the Food and Drug Administration. Mary Enig has had 17 articles published in scientific journals since 1976. In 1986, she was appointed by the Governor of Maryland to the “State Advisory Council on Nutrition.” She was contributing editor to “Clinical Nutrition” magazine and consulting editor for the “Journal of the American College of Nutrition.” She has given over 50 seminars and lectures on since 1979 on foods and nutrition topics.

In an article published in the Indian Coconut Journal, Sept., 1995, Dr. Enig stated that “Ancel Keys is largely responsible for starting the anti-saturated fat agenda in the United States.” She quoted Keys as saying that “All fats raise serum cholesterol; saturated fats raise and polyunsaturated fats lower serum cholesterol; Hydrogenated fats are the problem; Animal fats are the problem.” Enig stated: “As can be seen, his findings were inconsistent.”

Enig also stated: “The problems for coconut oil started four decades ago when researchers fed animals hydrogenated coconut oil that was purposely altered to make it completely devoid of any essential fatty acids...The animals fed the hydrogenated coconut oil (as the only fat source) naturally became essential fatty acid deficient; their serum cholesterol increased. Diets that cause an essential fatty acid deficiency always produce an increase in serum cholesterol levels as well as in increase in the atherosclerotic indices. The same effect has also been seen when other ...highly hydrogenated oils such as cottonseed, soybean or corn oils have been fed; so it is clearly a function of the hydrogenated products, either because the oil is essential fatty acid (EFA) deficient or because of trans fatty acids.”

What about studies where animals were fed unprocessed coconut oil? Enig wrote: “Hostmark et al (1980) compared the effects of diets containing 10% coconut oil and 10% sunflower oil on lipoprotein distribution in male Wistar rats. Coconut oil feeding produced significantly lower levels (p=0.05) of pre-beta lipoproteins (VLDL) and significantly higher (p=<0.01) alpha-lipoproteins (HDL) relative to sunflower feeding.” (Editor’s note: HDLs are considered the good cholesterol as they prevent deposits of LDL cholesterol on artery walls.) She also cited a study by Awad (1981) on Wistar rats fed a diet of either 14% (natural) coconut oil or 14% safflower oil. She stated:“Total tissue cholesterol accumulation for animals on the safflower diet was six times greater than for animals fed the [unhydrogenated] coconut oil..A conclusion that can be drawn from some of the animal research is that feeding hydrogenated coconut oil devoid of essential fatty acids(EFA)...potentiates the formation of atherosclerosis markers. It is of note that animals fed regular coconut oil have less cholesterol deposited in their livers and other parts of their bodies.” Enig also referred to epidemiological studies done by Kaunitz and Dayrit (1992) on coconut eating societies who found that “available population studies show that dietary coconut oil does not lead to high serum cholesterol nor to high coronary heart disease..” It is noteworthy that hydrogenated coconut oil was not consumed by these coconut eating societies; they only consumed natural coconut oil.

Kaunitz and Dayrit noted in 1989 that Mendis et al reported when Sri Lankan males were changed from their normal diet of natural coconut oil to corn oil, their LDL cholesterol declined 23.8% which is good news, but their HDL cholesterol declined 41.4% which is bad news. This created a more unfavorable LDL/HDL ratio meaning that on the corn oil diet there would be more cholesterol depositing on the artery walls than on the coconut oil diet. In plain English, a diet using liquid corn oil will lead to cholesterol deposits faster than a diet using natural coconut oil. Natural coconut oil, by increasing the good HDL cholesterol, may help prevent atherosclerosis and heart disease. Enig cited several other studies in her article that showed that natural coconut oil (not hydrogenated coconut oil) had health benefits markers indicating that coconut oil was more beneficial in preventing heart disease than most vegetable oils. Enig also cited the research of Tholstrup et al (1994) on natural (NOT hydrogenated) palm kernel oil which is high in lauric acid and also contains myristic acid. Tholstrup found that with palm kernel oil, “HDL cholesterol levels increased significantly from baseline values.”

Enig reported in her article that the effects of coconut oil on persons with low cholesterol levels was the opposite of persons with high cholesterol levels. Of persons with low total cholesterol counts, she wrote that “there may be a rising of serum cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and especially HDL cholesterol.” In persons with high cholesterol levels, “there is lowering of total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol.” The studies she cited showed that in both groups the LDL/HDL ratio moved in a favorable direction. In persons with AIDS or immune-compromised from other causes, the conclusions of this research are profound. It means everything the public has been told about vegetable oils on television for the past 15 years has been half truths and leading the public to the wrong conclusions. The public has been led to believe that tropicals will clog your arteries and cause heart disease. In fact, the opposite is true; natural tropical oils will help prevent hardening of the arteries while most liquid vegetable oils will increase hardening of the arteries! In a phone call to Mary Enig in April, 1997, she told me that the worst oil to use for any purpose is Canola oil. When used in cooking, it produces the very high levels of trans fatty acids.

MARY ENIG Ph.D. ON NATURAL COCONUT OIL FOR AIDS and OTHER VIRAL INFECTIONS

On July 19, 1995, Enig was quoted in an article published in The HINDU, India’s National Newspaper as stating that coconut oil is converted by the body into “Monolaurin” a fatty acid with anti-viral properties that might be useful in the treatment of AIDS. The staff reporter for The HINDU wrote about Enig’s presentation at a press conference in Kochi and wrote the following:

“There was an instance in the US in which an infant tested HIV positive had become HIV negative. That it was fed with an infant formula with a high coconut oil content gains significance in this context and at present an effort was on to find out how the “viral load” of an HIV infected baby came down when fed a diet that helped in the generation of Monolaurin in the body.”

The reporter commented on Enig’s observations that “Monolaurin helped in inactivating other viruses such as measles, herpes, vesicular stomatitis and Cytomegalovirus (CMV) and that research undertaken so far on coconut oil also indicated that it offered a certain measure of protection against cancer-inducing substances. "

In another article published in the Indian Coconut Journal, Sept., 1995, Dr. Enig stated:

“Recognition of the antimicrobial activity of the monoglyceride of lauric acid (Monolaurin) has been reported since 1966. The seminal work can be credited to Jon Kabara. This early research was directed at the virucidal effects because of possible problems related to food preservation. Some of the early work by Hierholzer and Kabara (1982) that showed virucidal effects of Monolaurin on enveloped RNA and DNA viruses was done in conjunction with the Center for Disease Control of the US Public Health Service with selected prototypes or recognized strains of enveloped viruses. The envelope of these viruses is a lipid membrane.”

Enig stated in her article that Monolaurin, of which the precursor is lauric acid, disrupted the lipid membranes of envelope viruses and also inactivated bacteria, yeast and fungi. She wrote:“Of the saturated fatty acids, lauric acid has greater antiviral activity than either caprylic acid (C-10) or myristic acid (C-14). The action attributed to Monolaurin is that of solubilizing the lipids ..in the envelope of the virus causing the disintegration of the virus envelope.” In India, coconut oil is fed to calves to treat Cryptosporidium as reported by Lark Lands Ph.D. in her upcoming book “Positively Well” (1).

While HHV-6A was not mentioned by Enig, HHV-6A is an enveloped virus and would be expected to disintegrate in the presence of lauric acid and/or Monolaurin. Some of the pathogens reported by Enig to be inactivated by Monolaurin include HIV, measles, vercular stomatitis virus (VSV), herpes simplex virus (HSV-1), visna, cytomegalovirus (CMV), Influenza virus, Pneumonovirus, Syncytial virus and Rubeola. Some bacteria inactivated by Monolaurin include listeria, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, Groups A, B, F and G streptococci, Gram-positive organisms; and gram-negative organisms, if treated with chelator.

Enig reported that only one infant formula “Impact” contains lauric acid while the more widely promoted formulas like “Ensure” do not contain lauric acid and often contain some hydrogenated fats (trans fatty acids). A modified ester of lauric acid, Monolaurin (available in capsules), is sold in health food stores and is manufactured by Ecological Formulas, Concord, CA.

ENIG ON A THERAPEUTIC DOSE

Based on her calculations on the amount of lauric acid found in human Mother’s milk, Dr. Enig suggests a rich lauric acid diet would contain about 24 grams of lauric acid daily for the average adult. This amount could be found in about 3.5 tablespoons of coconut oil or 10 ounces of “Pure Coconut Milk.” Coconut Milk is made in Sri Lanka and imported into the United States. It can be found in health food stores and in local grocery stores in the International Foods section or in specialty grocery stores that sell products imported from Thailand, the Philippines or East India. About 7 ounces of raw coconut daily would contain 24 grams of lauric acid. 24 grams of lauric acid is the therapeutic daily dose for adults suggested by Mary Enig based on her research of the lauric acid content of mother’s milk. (1)

1. Positively Well, by Lark Lands Ph.D. Her new book discusses lauric acid and suggests many treatment options for persons with AIDS or CFIDS and may be ordered by calling 905-672-7470 or 800-542-8102

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH ON THE ANTI-VIRAL EFFECTS OF LAURIC ACID

Mary Enig cites 24 references in her 7 page article on “Lauric Acid for HIV-infected Individuals,” a few of which are as follows:

1. Issacs, C.E. et al. Inactivation of enveloped viruses in human bodily fluids by purified lipids. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1994;724:457-464.

2. Kabara, J.J. Antimicrobial agents derived from fatty acids. Journal of the American Oil Chemists Society 1984;61:397-403.

3. Hierholzer, J.C. and Kabara J.J. In vitro effects on Monolaurin compounds on enveloped RNA and DNA viruses. Journal of Food Safety 1982;4:1-12.

4. Wang, L.L. and Johnson, E.A. Inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes by fatty acids and monoglycerides. Appli Environ Microbiol 1992; 58:624-629.

5. Issacs, C.E. et al. Membrane-disruptive effect of human milk: inactivation of enveloped viruses. Journal of Infectious Diseases 1986;154:966-971.

6. Anti-viral effects of monolaruin. JAQA 1987;2:4-6 7. Issacs C.E. et al. Antiviral and antibacterial lipids in human milk and infant formula feeds. Archives of Disease in Childhood 1990;65:861-864.

Note: Enig’s article in the Indian Coconut Journal has 41 reference cites. To obtain a complete set of both articles she wrote, see our order form on the last page of this newsletter.

RETURN FROM THE JUNGLE

An Interview with Chris Dafoe

May 15, 1997:

In our last newsletter, I reported on a PWA, Chris D. of Cloverdale, IN who, based on his lab numbers, thought the end was near in September, 1996. His HIV viral load was over 600,000, CD4 count was 10 and CD8 at 300. He prepaid his funeral and decided to take his last vacation in the jungles of South America with an Indian tribe in the Republic of Surinam. Around October 14, 1996, he began eating daily a dish of cooked coconut which was prepared by the local Indians. By Dec. 27th, 1996, a mere 2 and 1/2 months later, his viral load was at non-detectable levels and he had gained 32 lbs and was feeling great. Since he continued the cooked coconut for breakfast every day after he returned, both he and I agreed that something in the coconut must have inactivated the AIDS virus(s) (HIV and HHV-6A). In last my phone conversation with him in January, 1997, Chris indicated that he planned to return soon to Surinam and would be there for a few months. I did not hear from him again until April 28th, 1997.

Mark: Welcome back. How are you doing?

Chris: I feel great. I have more energy that ever. I had one setback when I got shingles and had to take a prescription drug. At the time I had the shingles, my viral load increased to 5000. Since then it has dropped back to non-detectable levels.

Mark: Have you had other lab results?

Chris: My total White Blood Count (WBC) increased from 1.7 to 3.0. My RBC and HGB both have increased. My triglycerides have come down from 760 to 547. My platelets are up from 228 to 235. CD4’s are up from 10 to 60. CD8’s increased from 300 to 375.

Mark: Do you know of anyone else who tried the coconut treatment?

Chris: Yes, a friend with a viral load of 900,000 ate 1/2 a cooked coconut a day. After 4 weeks, his viral load dropped to around 350,000. After the second month, his viral load remained the same and his doctor added Crixivan to his protocol. He did not use AZT or 3TC. After 4 weeks, his viral load dropped to non-detectable levels.

Mark: Coconuts and Crixivan?

Chris: Yes.

Mark: Was your friend’s diet the same as yours?

Chris: No. He ate red meats, hamburgers, pizza, french fries, the typical American diet.

Mark: What do you eat?

Chris: I do not eat fried foods, baked foods, red meat, hamburgers, lunch meat, french fries, pizza or bread or any products made from wheat (pasta, spaghetti). I eat raw and steamed vegetables, fruit, legumes and rice, some broiled fish and a little chicken.

Mark: It sounds like your diet is low in fat, gluten-free (no wheat products) and also free from hydrogenated fats and trans fatty acids.

Chris: That would be correct.

Mark: Did you find out why the Indians in Surinam eat cooked coconut every morning?

Chris: The Indian Chief told me that they use the coconut as the basis for all their medicines. They also use the milk from the inside of the coconut and also use other plants and herbs from the jungle to make these medicines. They eat cooked coconut every morning to help prevent illness.

Mark: How have you been making the coconut porridge every morning?

Chris: After I crack open the coconut, I peel the thin brown layer off the white meat and place 1/2 of the coconut meat in a microwave oven for 2 and 1/2 minutes. Then I run it through a food processor to make a fine paste. Then I cook it for 10 minutes and add breakfast cereal and cook them together until done.

Mark: If someone wants to contact you, would you mind giving out your e-mail address?

Chris: No. It is dafoe@ccrtc.com

Mark: Thank you for sharing this information with our readers. Note: Chris has recently been out of town for interviews for different employment positions he is considering.

PURE COCONUT MILK - OTHER CASE REPORTS

Milwaukee, WI. Jim Prentice, whose experience with Eden, the olive leaf extract, was reported in Positive Health News, Report No 11, under the initials J.P. tried “Coconut Milk” in May, 1997.

Around May 1st, Jim Prentice tried the coconut milk and liked it so much he drank up the whole can. Because of its heavy fat content, he later would divide it into 2 or 3 daily portions. His reaction: “I love it, it makes me feel great!” After 3 days he reported the last traces of his neuropathy was completely gone.

Brooklyn, NY., Robert Marra tried the coconut milk but because of a gall bladder operation could not tolerate a whole can and consumed 1/2 can daily. He reported 50% of his neuropathy was gone after using it for 3 days. May 21st: In a phone call I received from Don from Jamaica, he had reported previously a persistent pain in his belly that he had had for several months. After starting to drink a large glass daily of “Pure Coconut Milk” about a month ago, he reported the pain is completely gone.

While this report is about 5 cases, every new discovery has a beginning. The lab results in the first two cases are impressive but too small a number to draw definitive conclusions. However, the published scientific research on the antiviral properties for Monolaurin and its derivative, lauric acid, are well documented. There is a sound scientific basis for expecting broad spectrum anti-viral activity against all lipid envelope viruses from the consumption of coconuts, coconut milk and/or coconut oil.

Update: June 15th, 1997. Case No 6. This late-breaking news came too late to be printed in the hard copy of Positive Health News, Report No 14. On June 13th, a PWA from California called and told me the first lab results of any reported using canned Coconut Milk. He used 3/4 of a can of Pure Coconut Milk daily for 4 weeks. He reported his viral load for HIV dropped from 30,000 to 7,000. He used no other anti-virals. He also used some of the other immune based therapies like Naltrexone and Thymic Factors. He reported a doubling of his T cell counts (both CD4 and CD8) during the 4 week period.

THAI Kitchen Pure coconut Milk(1) and Gourmet Awards Pure Coconut Milk(2) come in 14 oz cans without added preservatives. 11 ounces contain about 24 grams of lauric acid, the therapeutic dose suggested by Mary Enig. I knew if coconut were to be widely used as a treatment for AIDS or CFIDS, we would need to find a more convenient way of using it since many people won’t go through the bother of cracking, peeling and cooking their own coconuts. (Note: Do not buy “Lite” Coconut milk. It is watered down and contains about half the lauric acid of regular coconut milk).

1. THAI Kitchens, Berkeley, CA Whole importers - 510-268-0209 E-mail: thaikitc@crl.com

2. Gourmet Award Foods, St. Paul MN. Wholesale importers for grocery stores 612-646-2981

Since some of the lauric acid in coconut oil is converted by the body into “Monolaurin” and the published scientific research indicates that Monolaurin dissolves the lipid membranes viruses, pure coconut oil or coconut oil found in coconut milk might be an effective, non-toxic, long term treatment for AIDS and CFIDS, inactivating not only HIV, but HHV-6A, EBV, CMV as well as other lipid envelope viruses.

Jarrow Formulas carries a “Certified Organic Coconut Oil “made by Omega Nutrition, Bellingham, WA. However, the demand for Organic Coconut Oil is often greater than the supply. As long as the coconut oil is natural and not hydrogenated, it should still work even if not certified “organic.” Coconut milk and oil have three things going for it and two against. The three things for it are 1. availability 2. low cost 3. non-toxic/no side effects. The two things going against it are 1. Too few success reports at this time - only 5 persons have given feedback (although there are no failures to report either) 2. Low profit from sales - not likely to be heavily promoted in the media.

Update: A person with CFIDS whom I reported in my last newsletter who was 36 lbs underweight called me the other day to report his CD8 and CD4 counts have doubled and he has gained 15 lbs in the past 3 months. He eats 2 whole raw coconuts weekly, takes Naltrexone daily, supplementation with intestinal flora and received injections of L-Glutathione and ATP from Dr. Patricia Salvato (Houston, TX). He eats no fried foods. He eats squash daily, Okra and other vegetables. He says he is doing much better. John can be reached at dettling@tenet.edu.

IDEAS ON HOW TO USE RAW COCONUT, COCONUT MILK OR OIL

Raw coconut - 7 ounces contains about 24 grams of lauric acid. For some persons, coconut are free for the picking. One lady in Hawaii told me “we have coconuts all around here. There are several hanging in front of the window as we talk.” Raw coconut may be eaten plain or ground in a coffee grinder or food processor into fine tasty moist flakes that can be mixed with yogurt, applesauce or cereal.

Coconut Milk: To 2 and 1/3 cups of skim or low fat “cows” milk add one 14 ounce can of pure coconut milk. Shake and refrigerate until used. Three 8 ounce glasses daily provides 24 grams of lauric acid. In place of regular “cow’s milk,” you may substitute lactose reduced milk or low fat soy or rice milk.

Other uses for coconut milk. Add 1/2 tsp. of vanilla to a can of coconut milk. Refrigerate. It thickens to the consistency of ice cream. Add it to dishes of berries, apple sauce or other fruits. Add coconut milk to “Stir Fry vegetables” - Thai style with added curry.

Use coconut milk or coconut oil in place of vegetable oil for baking purposes.

Whole lemon/coconut oil drink - substitute 2 tablespoons of coconut oil (or 2/3 cup coconut milk) for 1 tbs. of olive oil. Add 3/4 cup pineapple or other fruit juice. Dose: about 12 to 14 grams of lauric acid per serving.

Add 1 scoop of Designer Protein or one packet of Immunocal to a jar and add 2/3 cup of coconut milk and 1/2 cup of fruit juice (pineapple?). Stir. Do this twice a day. This gives you 24 grams of lauric acid.

If you are Allergic to coconuts, use coconut oil

The allergy is caused by proteins in the coconut, not the oil. Mix equal parts of melted butter and coconut oil together and use it in place of pure butter on bread, potatoes and vegetables as well as for frying and baking needs.

To make a drink, add 3 and 1/2 tablespoons of coconut oil to 2 and 3/4 cups of skim or low fat milk (or soy or rice milk) and place in a blender. Add 1 teaspoon of pectin and blend. Pectin is sold in grocery stores for canning jams and jellies. Three 8 ounce glasses daily gives you 24 grams of lauric acid.

Breakfast Pancakes - substitute coconut oil for butter or vegetable oil and double the dose. Two large buckwheat pancakes containing 2 tbs. of coconut oil provide 14 grams of lauric acid.

John Finnegan in “The Facts About Fats” recommends the following brands of coconut oil: “Only Omega Nutrition make organically grown, unrefined coconut oil that is packaged in light excluding containers.” Omega organic coconut oil is distributed through Jarrow Formulas.

Raw Unpasteurized Milk Blended With Coconut Milk

If you can find a local farmer who will sell you raw goat’s milk or cow’s milk, you can substitute it for the low fat milk in the above recipes and you will get the added benefits on increasing L-Glutathione levels without the need to use Immunocal or Designer Protein. The curative powers of raw goat’s milk have been widely reported in health literature. However, raw cow’s milk also has curative powers. One person from Canada told me that 1 or 2 glasses daily of raw cow’s milk has cured several local cases of Arthritis. A tab of butter is placed on top of the milk and it is gently heated until the butter melts, then it is consumed immediately. Note: Milk with 4% fat sold in grocery stores contains small amounts of lauric acid, but it may not be enough to be therapeutic. However, 2 years ago, one PWA with wasting syndrome, who was not lactose intolerant, told me he gained 20 lbs by drinking 1/2 gallon of milk daily. For persons lactose intolerant, “Lactaid” may be added to the milk to digest the lactose.

What about eating macaroons? I would advise against it as a treatment for AIDS or CFIDS. When flaked or dessiccated coconut is baked with egg white and honey in macaroons, there may be an absorption problem. The lauric acid might not be digested and assimilated.

How can I improve my absorption of fats and oils? The B vitamin “Biotin” may help in cases where there is a problem with fat absorption. Suggested adult dose: 5 mg daily. Do not use this high a dose continuously. Stop for 2 weeks after the first month. Have your physician monitor your B vitamin levels. Pectin found in lemon rinds and fruits like apple and cranberries will also help with fat absorption. Suggestion: Add one or more slices of whole lemon to your meals and/or apple sauce or cranberry sauce. Absorption of nutrients from foods may be enhanced if you eliminate all wheat products from your diet - for many, easier said than done. Substitute white rice, wild rice, brown rice, squash and potatoes for wheat products.

OTHER USES FOR COCONUT OIL FOR SKIN RASHES, FUNGAL INFECTIONS and PLANTAR’S WARTS.

GOOT: For 5 years or longer, I have had a recipe in my book on a Garlic Oil Ointment called GOOT. This is a combination of raw garlic blended with coconut oil with a little olive oil added. I have never ceased to be amazed at what this ointment can accomplish. Last fall, I met “Dan” a local resident who told me he had a bad case of Plantar’s Warts and Athletes foot. When he showed me the soles of his feet, it was the worst looking set of feet I have ever observed. I made a mixture of GOOT for him by placing 1 tablespoon of fresh chopped garlic cloves, 3 tablespoons of coconut oil and 1 tbs. of olive oil in a coffee grinder and blended it together. The mixture was then placed in a small jar and refrigerated until used. (shelf life - 30 days). The olive oil was added to keep the mixture soft while refrigerated - otherwise with coconut oil alone, it would be rock hard while refrigerated.

Dan applied the mixture to his feet for two weeks. Two weeks later he visited me and took off his socks to show me what looked like a magical transformation - both the fungal infection and the Plantar’s Warts were completely gone. He had what looked like a brand new set of feet, totally normal in color and appearance. He said: “After about 10 days, the Plantar’s Warts just peeled off.”

In another local case, a rash of unknown origin cleared up in 2 days by applying pure coconut oil to it. In a third case, a PWA who had a rash all over his face for 2 years and who had tried every treatment the Dermatologist gave him, decided to try GOOT. He reported that after 2 weeks, the rash was completely gone. He was so happy he said he was taking a vacation - something he had been too ashamed to do for 2 years. The only complaint a few people have had about the ointment is that it stinks, an undeniable fact that gives garlic another common name “the stinking rose.”

GOOT was originally designed for people who wanted a gentler alternative to garlic clove anal suppositories that can burn. The suppositories are used to kill fungal and parasitic infections in the colon. Since active ingredients in the garlic are also absorbed into the blood, there is a systemic benefit. This leads to the next question: Can a daily dose of lauric acid (3.5 tbsps of coconut oil) be absorbed into the body as a rectal implant? Would not adding one clove of garlic to the coconut oil make this a powerful double hit combo? No one has tried this as a treatment for AIDS or CFIDS; perhaps someone should.

“BAG BALM,” A VETERINARY MEDICINE, STOPS A RAGING SKIN INFECTION

6/4/97: A few days ago, Joe, a local PWA, called me and described an unbearable skin rash that had spread throughout his entire body causing severe burning and itching. His physician had prescribed prednisone, an anti-inflammatory steroid, and Atarax, an antihistamine. His physician told him the prescriptions might not work and his condition might be untreatable. Both the Prednisone and Atarax had caused his condition to worsen indicating that it was not an allergic reaction he was suffering from but some kind of uncontrolled skin infection. His condition was so bad that he had not slept for 2 days and was even considering suicide. At a friend’s suggestion, I went to a local pharmacy to look for a product to treat scabies which I could not find. While in the pharmacy, my eye caught the attention of a can of “Bag Balm.” The instructions on the can indicated it was to be used on the udder of cows for infection. The can was labeled “ANTISEPTIC.” Its active ingredient was Hydroxy Quinoline Sulfate. I thought to myself “quinine and sulfur - this has got to one strong infection fighter.” I also wondered why a modern pharmacy was stocking a product for cow’s udders in a city that had neither farmers nor cows.

Acting on a hunch, I bought the can and brought it to Joe. I told Joe “if this does not work, I suggest trying calamine lotion or a mixture of garlic and coconut oil.” However, within 5 minutes of the first application of Bag Balm, the burning had substantially subsided. Five hours later, he called to tell me the itching and burning was 90% gone and the rash was 60% gone. The following morning he called and said the skin rash/infection was 98% gone. Local veterinarians usually stock Bag Balm. It is also sold by JEFFERS, a mail order firm that sells many veterinary supplies and medicines. To obtain a catalog, call 1-800-JEFFERS.

IMMUNOLOGY AT THE CELLULAR LEVEL -THE MEMBRANE INTEGRITY OF INDIVIDUAL CELLS

Trans Fatty Acids (heated oils) weaken cell membrane defense against viral infections by creating small pin holes in cell membranes allowing viruses to inject their genetic material

There is another arm, the third branch of the immune system, we need to examine that has nothing to do the CD4 or CD8 counts, Natural Killer cell function or the immune system repertoire (Memory T cells). It is the defense of the individual cell, a defense which depends on the integrity of the cell membrane. Cells in the body are in a constant process of division and replacement. Like enveloped viruses, the individual cell membranes in our body are made out of the fats and oils we consume. The integrity of the outer cell membrane depends totally on the quality of fats (lipids) circulating in the blood. Our blood is our cells’ food supply. If we eat bad fats, these fats will end up in the membranes of our cells. In other words, junk in, junk out.

TRANS FATTY ACIDS - THE PIECE OF THE CELL MEMBRANE PUZZLE THAT WON’T FIT

Imagine for a minute that each individual cell looked like a brick house from the outside. If the brick layer is constructed of only rectangular bricks of the same identical size, the finished house will be sealed from rain and from invasion by critters like cockroaches and spiders. Now imagine if a bricklayer built a house with bricks that had different shapes of width and length. Like the pieces of a mismatched puzzle, they would not properly fit together. Between the bricks would soon be exposed large cracks. Into these cracks, cock roaches, crickets and spiders could find their way into the house or they could lay their eggs in the cracks between the bricks. Now, imagine that the brick house is an individual cell in your body and that its outer wall is composed of fats that are out of shape and do not fit tightly together like the pieces of a puzzle. How do you fit mis-shaped fats (trans fatty acids) with natural fats (cis form) and have a puzzle with no missing pieces and no gaps between the pieces? In his book Fats that Heal - Fats that Kill, Udo Erasmus writes on Trans Fatty acids:

“Misfits. The change in shape from the bent cis-form to the straight trans-form fits the molecules into body structures differently. In biological systems, the trans-form only half-fits into enzyme and membrane structures. It takes up the space and blocks out the cis-form, but cannot do the work that the cis-form can do.”

“Holes in Membranes. Trans-fatty acids change the permeability of cell membranes. They impair the protective barrier around cells, which is vital for keeping cells alive and healthy. This means that some molecules that ordinarily would be kept out of our cells can now get in, while some molecules which would ordinarily remain in our cells can now get out. Cell vitality would then diminish. Also, allergic reactions may result, and immune function may be impaired.” “Trans fatty acids and altered fatty acid derivatives can have many deleterious effects on cell membranes, brain development, the cardiovascular system, the liver and the immune system..”

In his book, “The Facts About Fats,” John Finnegan writes: “One major cause of breakdown in the immune system is an overall weakening in cellular membrane integrity. The cells in the walls of healthy cells have the ability to discriminate between what is allowed in and what to keep out. In other words, they can resist entry by viruses and other pathogenic agents and, at the same time , facilitate the entry of nutrients.”

In Positive Health News, Report No 13, I reported on a PWA who had hepatitis and was for several years on a fat free diet. I other words, he consumed no mis-shaped trans fatty acids. When his body produced fats from carbohydrates, they were of the natural cis shape. Our body does not produce trans fatty acids. After several years of being on this low-fat diet and not taking any anti-virals like AZT or anything else, his first PCR test for HIV showed non-detectable levels. Last fall, friends from out of town visited him and took him out to local restaurants and he began eating pizza, hamburgers, french fries, potato chips and other foods containing trans fatty acids. His next viral load test, done shortly after this change of diet, resulted in his viral load increasing to 95,000. Here we see a clear cut case directly linking consumption of trans fatty acids to an increase in HIV viral load.

Today, Americans consume significant quantities of trans fatty acids. Trans fatty acids are found in many processed foods - all deep fried foods, candy bars, cookies, cakes, pies, pastry, lunch meat, potato chips, french fries etc. Trans fatty acids are formed when unsaturated oils are heated to temperatures above the boiling temperature of water. The more unsaturated the oil, the more heat applied, the more trans fatty acids will be formed. Canola oil, which is very high in unsaturated fats, is the most dangerous oil of all to use for any cooking purpose and will produce a greater quantity of trans fatty acids than soy oil or corn oil. All liquid vegetable oils, including soy, sunflower and corn, will produce trans fatty acids when used for frying purposes. The safest oils to use for frying and baking purposes are butter, coconut oil, and following that is Extra Virgin Olive oil. Udo Erasmus reports that some brands of margarine contain as much as 60% trans fatty acids. All man- made hydrogenated vegetable oils contain trans fatty acids due to the very high temperatures used in the process in which hydrogen gas is bubbled through the heated oils.

It is little wonder that many people eating margarine and cooking with Canola oil are getting heart attacks in their 50’s while farmers who drink raw unpasturized milk, eat butter and eggs daily are living into their 80’s and beyond. So much for all the propaganda the public has been listening to on television for the past 20 years. The skillful marketers of domestic oil have not been telling the public the whole truth. Half truths, even when supported by fragmented scientific data, which lead to wrong conclusions are no different than whole lies. In his book, “The Facts about Fats,” John Finnegan quotes Dr. C. Everett Koop, former Surgeon General of the United States as calling the tropical oil scare “foolishness”. “But to get the word to commercial interests terrorizing the pubic about nothing is another matter.”

In his book “Fats that Heal - Fats that Kill,” Udo Erasmus writes:“Deception, an art more ancient than technology, has been perfected by industries. Half-truths and deception, the stuff of advertising that generates sales, make liberal use of scientific format. Infomercials look like research reports complete with references, but serve sales rather than the search for accurate information.” The biggest deception of industry in their attack on the tropical oils is their failure to tell the public that studies indicating that tropical oils (coconut and palm kernel) increase cholesterol levels are based on hydrogenated tropical oils and not on tropical oils in their natural unprocessed state. They also fail to tell the public that natural tropical oils increase HDLs, the good cholesterol that dissolve the LDL cholesterol, which often causes hardening of the arteries. Scientific research is unanimous in supporting the health benefits of HDL cholesterol for reducing risk of heart disease.

HOST DEFENSE REQUIRES ESSENTIAL FATTY ACIDS (EFAs)

Since coconut oil, palm kernel oil and butter lack essential fatty acids, it is important to supplement a diet high in lauric acid with EFAs from quality sources. In his book, “The Facts About Fats,” John Finnegan writes about the importance of EFAs:

“Omega-3 and Omega-6 fatty acids and GLA (gamma linolenic acid) provide the necessary raw materials for the body to make prostaglandins...a deficiency in needed prostaglandins can be a major factor causing the mental-emotional depression and imbalance that often leads to a craving for addictive substances...gamma linolenic acid has shown significant effects in healing liver damage caused by alcohol abuse..The results show that GLA (from Evening Primrose Oil) can improve liver function, reduce the demand for tranquilizers, improve brain function and lower the incidence of hallucinations during the period of alcohol withdrawal.”

Finnegan also cites the importance of GLA, Omega 3 and 6 in allergies, food allergies, anemia, arthritis, candida, cancer, depression, eczema, fatigue, heart disease, PMS, ulcers, dry eyes, psoriasis, diabetes, multiple sclerosis, schizophrenia and nervous system dysfunction.

On the immune system and the integrity of the cell membranes, Finnegan writes: “Essential fatty acids are the major constituent of all cellular membranes in the body. Maintaining the integrity of these membranes helps prevent infections by yeast, viruses, bacteria and parasites....Think of your cell walls as the walls of a house. If the walls of your house are made with bricks and mortar of good quality ingredients, mixed in proper proportions, you will have a strong house. It will keep out wind, rain snow, cold and insects. But suppose some of the key ingredients of these bricks and mortar are missing, in some cases replaced by inferior ingredients? The walls of your house will then be vulnerable to the elements and may crumble and fall....when we consider that all the surfaces of our skin, digestive tract, mouth, sinuses, and throat are covered with trillions of bacteria, viruses, parasites, and yeasts and even one square inch has millions of these creatures, a cell’s ability to recognize and keep out those that are pathogenic is critical to the survival of the host.”

Editors comment: Well said, John Finnegan. In AIDS, most of the opportunistic infections that are life-threatening are intracellular - inside the cells. If an infected cell cannot pass the infection onto the next cell, the spread of the infection is stopped cold. To stop the spread of intracellular infections, it requires lifestyle and dietary changes so the membrane integrity of the individual cell can be re-established.

Sources of Essential Fatty Acids: Canned Salmon (Red sockeye is best), Sardines, broiled fish, 1 tbs. whole flax seed or raw pumpkin seeds freshly ground and sprinkled over cereal, yogurt etc. or 2 tablespoons of fresh walnuts directly taken out of the shells, Evening Primrose Oil - 1 capsule twice daily. Raw wheat germ - buy only brands that are refrigerated or stored in a vacuum sealed or nitrogen packed jar - keep in a freezer after opening jar - sprinkle over cereal, yogurt or applesauce. I advise against using flaxseed oil, fish oil capsules, other oils in capsules - too many of these may have gone rancid. By going directly to the source, you get fresh active oils. EFA’s are also found in raw dark green leafy vegetables - kale, spinach, parsley, endive, broccoli and beet tops.

Immune-based Therapies to enhance Cell-mediated Immunity (CMI) Updated 6/1/97 PROTOCOLS KNOWN TO ENHANCE CMI

Notice: Anyone with an organ transplant should not use any protocol that enhances CMI or it will stimulate the immune system into rejecting the donor organ.

Naltrexone .

Naltrexone is used once a day in 3 mg doses - usually taken in the evening. Primarily enhances Natural Killer cell function, but also stimulates the CD8 cytotoxic lymphocytes. Besides treating persons with HIV or AIDS, Dr. Bihari MD has used Naltrexone to treat lymphomas and pancreatic cancer leading to remissions of these conditions. PWAs using Naltrexone daily report few opportunistic infections. CFIDS patients report a reduction in their symptoms. Besides AIDS and CFIDS, Naltrexone should be considered as an adjunct therapy for anyone with cancer. Naltrexone requires a prescription from your physician. It is sold under the trade name “Revia” by Dupont. A pharmacy must recompound Naltrexone from the 50 mg tablets into 3 mg capsules. Several years ago, Dr. Bernard Bihari MD (New York City)studied the effects of Naltrexone on the immune system in a controlled study of 20 patients. Several of our readers have reported the disappearance of hairy leukoplakia, thrush and report sleeping very soundly after taking Naltrexone. Bihari found that Naltrexone triples Natural Killer cell activity. Some of Bihari’s patients have been on Naltrexone for nearly a decade. Recently, Dr. Bihari has done studies of combining Naltrexone with protease inhibitors and nucleosides and is currently writing the results of his findings, which are available to physicians upon request. Recently, his secretary told me that “no one is dying from AIDS at our clinic.” Dr. Bihari can be reached at 212-929-4196 Fax 212-229-9371.

Note: In my last newsletter, I predicted that the death rate from AIDS would drop to 90% if Naltrexone were added to the drug cocktail combinations. However, in my opinion, long term use of protease inhibitors (PIs) is contraindicated because they impair liver function, allowing for an increase in substances within the body that can be injurious to one’s health even before they reach toxic levels. It has been observed that liver enzymes are elevated in most persons using protease inhibitors.

Contraindications: Do not give Naltrexone to anyone using Morphine, Codeine or anyone who has a damaged liver. The standard dose for Naltrexone is in 50 mg tablets for alcohol or heroin addition. At this dosage level, it can be hard on the liver in some persons. At the 3 mg dose, there should not be a problem unless a person already has a liver damage, is jaundiced, has high elevated liver enzymes and ammonia levels. One person with CFIDS found the 3 mg capsule too strong and takes 1/2 capsule daily. For more information, see my book “How To Reverse Immune Dysfunction.”

DNCB (DiNitroChloroBenzene)

No one should use DNCB without first reading all these instructions.

This article was preceded with an interview with Billi Goldberg, who is an expert on the subject of using DNCB. DNCB is a sensitizing agent used in photography. Several decades ago, it was discovered that once a week topical applications would activate cell-mediated immunity and DTH (Delayed Type Hypersensitivity). DNCB has been found to increase total CD8 cell counts and in particular, CD8 cytotoxic cells as well as enhance Natural Killer (NK) activity. Some articles published in medical journals about DNCB are listed as follows:

1. “Stimulation of T-cellular immunity by cutaneous application of dinitrochlorobenzene,” by Mills LB, 1986.; J. Acad Dermatol 14:1089-1090.

2. “Dendritic cells and DNCB; a new treatment approach to AIDS,” by Stricker RB, Elswood BF, Abrams DI, 1991; Immunol Letters, 29:191-196

3. “Clinical and Immunologic Evaluation of HIV infected patients treated with dinitrochlorobenzene,” by Stricker RD, Elswood BF, Goldberg B et al, 1994. J. Am Acad Dermat 31:462-466.

4. “Safety of topical dinitrochlorobenzene,” by Stricker RB, Goldberg B, 1995 Lancet 346:1293.

5. “Improved results of delayed-type hypersensitivity skin testing in HIV-infected patients treated with topical dinitrochlorobenzene,” by Stricker RB, Goldberg B, Mills LB, Epstein WL, 1995 J. Am Acad Dermatol 33:608-11.

Fred Shaw L.Ac. told me that DNCB topical applications are no different than if someone went into the woods and came in contact with poison ivy or poison oak and developed a skin reaction. The skin reaction that develops is an immune response that sets off a cell-mediated cascade activating both CD8 CTLs and NK cells. This cell-mediated cascade is also believed to shift the CD4s from the TH2 response to the TH1 response, which makes them more effective in attacking the AIDS virus and other infections inside the cells. Generally TH2 type CD4s circulate in the blood while the TH1 type go to the lymph nodes and other sites of active infection. Normally, 90% of the CD4s are in the lymph system. Drug cocktail combinations that result in big increases in CD4 counts in the blood are often of the TH2 type and are not of much immunological value to the patient. Dr. Jay Levy MD has reported that big increases in CD4 counts in the blood often reflect only a movement of CD4 cells from the lymph system to the blood and the increase of CD4s in the blood do not reflect newly created CD4 cells.

You can easily tell if the increases in CD4s are of the TH2 type if you break out with thrush and other opportunistic infections after your CD4 cells have significantly increased. If the increases in the CD4s were of the TH1 type, this would not be happening. CD4s of the TH1 type signal CD8 cytotoxic lymphocytes to clear infections inside the cells or to destroy virus infected cells while the TH2 type signal B cells to produce antibodies that are not effective against intracellular infections. The TH2 type of CD4s also increase the percentage of CD8 suppressor cells and decrease the number of CD8 cytotoxic lymphocytes.

DNCB: SENSITIZATION AND CHALLENGE

The first experience anyone has with DNCB will be the strongest reaction one will ever encounter. This initial reaction is called “sensitization.” Initial sensitization is done by using a Q-tip and applying 2 applications of a 10% DNCB solution to an area ranging in size from 1 inch by 1 inch to as large as 2 inches by 2 inches. The initial application should be applied to the inner left forearm. DO NOT APPLY IT ANYWHERE ELSE. As a general rule, DNCB applications should be applied on the upper part of the body, not the legs and thighs. No showers are taken for at least 12 hours after the initial application or the original area of contact will spread. A large gauze is placed over the area and adhesive bandage is applied making sure the adhesive does not touch the area where the DNCB was applied. The person waits 2 weeks minimum before using DNCB again. The initial sensitization reaction usually occurs within 10 to 14 days.

A systemic sensitization reaction, which is the desired reaction, must have all of the following characteristics: Redness, severe itching and raised skin at the application site. If you develop all 3 reactions, you are sensitized. In addition, some swelling of the skin in and around the application site and a feeling of heat being generated will accompany these reactions. If no reaction occurs or the only reaction that occurs is that the skin turns red and there is no itching and no raised skin, you are not sensitized. If you are not sensitized to the first application of DNCB, the weekly application of DNCB will do you no good. If you are not sensitized after 2 weeks, administer one application of 10% DNCB solution weekly until a sensitization reaction occurs. A new area needs to be used each time it is applied. When sensitization finally occurs, every area to which you applied DNCB will flare up at once. When that happens, you are sensitized! The first sensitization reaction will take the longest to disappear. The average time is 4 months. Many persons, because of fear of the first reaction, never try DNCB again.

Several persons have told me “I got burned the first time I used DNCB; I’ll never use that stuff again.” Some persons have reported reactions lasting 8 months and even longer. Strangely enough, no one with an ongoing DNCB reaction ,including those that last several months, has ever reported coming down with a major opportunistic infection. Billi Goldberg told me that “persons with the strongest initial reaction to DNCB are the long term AIDS survivors.” Dave Pasquerelli, a member of ACT-UP SF, told me that “the more you use DNCB, the faster these skin reactions disappear.” In Milwaukee, WI, a local PWA who has used DNCB for the past 3 years told me his usual skin reactions come and go in 4 days. DNCB solutions are made available in 4 different concentrations: 10%, 2%, .2% and .02%.A DNCB Starter Kit contains all 4 strengths. After sensitization has occurred, persons usually try the weakest solution, (.02%), to see if they get a reaction called a “challenge” to the immune system.

Challenge: After sensitization occurs, the immune system is challenged with the weakest concentration of DNCB solution applied in an area from as small as 1 inch square to a 2 by 2 inch area. At the minimum, the reaction should include a reddening of the skin and itching, some slight swelling and heat generated in the immediate area. If the reaction is too weak, a stronger solution (.2%) is used in the third application. If the reaction is still not strong enough, then the 2% solution is used. The immune reaction increases total CD8 counts, both of the suppressor and cytotoxic subsets, with primary stimulation of the cytotoxic subsets and increased Natural Killer cell activity. The activated CD8 CTLs and NK cells provide a significant degree of protection against opportunistic infections.

MY OWN EXPERIENCE WITH DNCB

In May, 1996, I decided to try DNCB to see what reaction would occur. After applying a 10% solution twice to an area about 2 x 2 inches just above my left knee, I waited about two weeks and nothing happened. I thought to myself “Mark Konlee does not have any cell-mediated immunity, isn’t that interesting?” I decided to go to a local salon and get a suntan. The very next day the area began to itch and I began to scratch it (something you are not supposed to do). Within a few days a severe reaction set in with redness, severe itching, swelling of the skin in the immediate area and raised skin. I was sensitized. Fearing another reaction of this intensity, I decided not to try it again until this reaction was completely gone. No one told me at the time that the longer you use DNCB, the faster these reactions go away. In a phone call to Dave Pasquerelli, he advised me to apply calamine lotion. I did and it helped reduce the itching and swelling. Between daily application of Bactine to prevent infections, aloe vera gel and calamine lotion, it took 4 months before the reaction was completely gone. Recently, I found that coconut oil applied over the DNCB patch helped relieve itching in one local case.

The next time I tried DNCB was in April, 1997. Being cautious, I tried the weakest solution - .02%. Within a few hours, it began to itch and turned slightly red, a weak reaction. Within 5 days it was gone. A week later, I decided to try the stronger solution - .2%. Within an hour, a strong reaction set in with red slightly raised skin and significant itching. Within 5 days it was gone. Two days later, I began taking one Beta 1, 3 Glucan capsule daily. Within two days, the patch that was gone reappeared and began to itch severely. Beta 1, 3 Glucan is known to enhance cell-mediated responses so it’s no surprise that it caused a reactivation of the DNCB patch. I continued taking the Beta 1, 3 Glucan and after 5 more days observed that the skin reaction was not going away. Apparently, the Beta 1, 3 Glucan was priming the DTH response. I stopped taking the Beta Glucan and within a week the skin reaction was gone. I

have since learned that Thymus and thymic factors will also prime the DTH response. Since an over-reaction can be uncomfortable, I would suggest anyone planning to use DNCB for the first time to stop using Thymus and Thymic factors and Beta 1, 3 Glucan for 2 weeks before using the first application of DNCB. On the other hand, if someone waits two weeks and gets no reaction to the initial double dose of 10% DNCB solution, they might want to take Thymic factors and/or Beta 1, 3 Glucan for a few days to turn on the sensitization reaction before trying a second application.

In a variation to my experience, a person with less than 10 CD4 cells told me he gets good skin responses to DNCB and he still takes Beta 1, 3 Glucan and Complete Thymic Formula daily. He reports the DTH skin reactions still go away in 5 days. Since his cell-mediated immunity (CMI), he can use the extra priming of the CMI responses by taking Thymic factors and Beta Glucan. It is important to listen to your body and to observe how you react to DNCB or any other treatment and to make changes in your protocol as needed.

QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS ABOUT DNCB

In an interview with Billi Goldberg, an expert on DNCB, I asked several questions.

Mark: Several of our readers have told me that they used DNCB once, got a very strong reaction that took several months to go away and are afraid to use it again. If these persons want to try DNCB again, do they have to re-sensitize with the double dose of 10% DNCB?

Billi: Probably not. Once you are sensitized to DNCB, the T cell memory should last for several years. They could start with weekly applications of the .2% or .02%. If you started with the weakest dose of .02% and do not get a reaction, you can move up to a stronger dose until you get a good reaction.

Mark: I know one person whose doctor told him that if he did not use the drug cocktails, he would be dead in 6 months. He did not like the way the drugs made him feel and refuses to take them. I told him about DNCB and he applied a 10% solution twice to a 2 x 2 inch area on his leg. Note: He should have applied it initially to his inner forearm. Even so, about 10 days later, he got a very powerful reaction. It burned and it itched severely. He began scratching it with a hair brush and it spread to an area 4 times its original size. It took daily applications of “Ivarest,” a cream for treating poison ivy, plus Calamine lotion to reduce the area of reaction back to its original size. My question is: to achieve initial sensitization, do we need to always start with an area 2 X 2 inches, could we do it with a smaller area - say one inch square?

Billi: Yes, you could try obtaining sensitization with DNCB using a smaller area such as one inch square. However, if you do not get a sensitization reaction in 10 to 14 days, you will need to use a weekly application of the 10% solution in a different location until sensitization occurs. Once sensitization occurs, every other area you applied DNCB to will react at the same time.

Mark: What advice would you have for CFIDS patients trying DNCB?

Billi: For persons with CFIDS, start off with double applications of the 2% solution rather than the 10%. If a sensitization reaction does not occur with 14 days, you can try the 10% solution.

Mark: Does DNCB have to be applied every week for someone with high CD8s and very good DTH responses?

Billi: For someone with high CD8s and good DTH who is asymptomatic, they could use it less often such as once every 2 weeks. For some persons, once a month may be sufficient to keep the cell-mediated responses primed.

Mark; Who should not use DNCB?

Billi: Persons with organ transplants, persons with active hepatitis, jaundice, pancreatitis, damaged livers, sarcoidosis, multiple sclerosis and parkinsons disease.

Mark: Who should use DNCB?

Billi: Persons with HIV, CFIDS and other conditions who have a lack of cell-mediated immunity. They can also check with their physician to find if they have any condition that would be adversely impacted by using DNCB and improving cell-mediated immune responses.

Mark: Thank you for this information. Billi can be reached at 415-826-3597 or e-mail at BiGoldberg@aol.com.

Where to obtain DNCB. By credit card, you can order a DNCB Starter Kit from 1. Healing Alternative Fdn at 415-626-4053 or 2. Send a donation of $25 for a DNCB Starter Kit or $10 per individual bottle (10%, 2%,.2% or .02%) to DNCB Treatment Group, 2261 Market St, #639, San Francisco, CA 94114. A book called The DNCB Treatment Files is also available on request - suggested donation $15.00. Note: Some readers have had difficulty connecting with DNCB Treatment Group by telephone so ordering by mail is advised. DNCB Treatment Group will send Starter Kits free of charge to persons financially unable to pay.

Beta 1, 3 Glucan Macrophage activator - enhances DTH

Beta 1, 3 Glucan is a polysaccharide derived from the membranes of a common yeast and a known activator of macrophage activity. It is a pure isolate and does not contain any yeast proteins so persons allergic to yeast should not have a reaction. Beta 1, 3 Glucan is also found in rye sprouts and oat sprouts primarily and to a lesser extent in wheat and barley grass. These sprouts also contain Beta 1, 6 Glucan. Beta 1, 3 Glucan and Beta 1, 6 Glucan is also found in over the counter products like Oralmat or Ryvital. It is also sold in high-concentration 100 mg capsules. There are no known adverse effects from using Beta 1, 3 Glucan and no known drug inter-reactions.

Macrophages are white blood cells that capture foreign invaders (viruses, fungus, bacteria and parasites) and present the invader (antigen) to CD4 cells. If the CD4 cells signal the macrophage that it is an alien, the macrophage destroys the antigen; if not an alien, the macrophage releases it. This antigen presentation from macrophages, monocytes and CD8 cytotoxic lymphocytes occurs in the lymph nodes and is a process that fails in AIDS. Contributing factors to the failure of antigen presentation and cell-mediated immunity include damage to the germinal centers of the lymph nodes caused by HHV-6A, lack of CD8 cytotoxic lymphocytes, lack of TH1 type CD4s and/or activated macrophages and monocytes.

WHAT THE SCIENTIFIC COMMUNITY SAYS ABOUT BETA 1, 3 GLUCAN

M.L. Patchen, Ph.D., Dept of Experimental Hematology and Radiation Sciences, Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute states: “Glucan (Beta 1, 3) has been shown to enhance macrophage function dramatically, and to increase nonspecific host resistance to a variety of bacterial, viral, fungal and parasitic infections.” . William Browder MD, Dept of Surgery and Physiology, Tulane University School of Medicine states: “Beta 1, 3 Glucan is a potent macrophage stimulant and is beneficial in the therapy of experimental bacterial, viral and fungal diseases.” A search on AIDSLINE (National Library of Medicine) turned up the following abstracts.

Two groups of symptomatic patients were treated with antifungal agents. The first group that received Beta 1, 3 polyglucose and the antifungal agent while the second group only received the antifungal agent. In the first group, 10% had a relapse of fungal infection, while the group treated with the antifungal agent alone had a 62% relapse. The authors, Meira DA et al wrote: “The present results indicate that the patients who received glucan, in spite of being more seriously ill, had a stronger and more favorable response to therapy.” (1)

In an article on Lentinan, a mushroom containing beta 1, 3 glucan and beta 1, 6 glucan, G Chihara wrote, after observing that Lentinan prevents “cancer recurrence or metastasis after surgery,”: “These polysaccharides also increase host resistance to various kinds of bacterial, viral and parasitic infections including AIDS.” (2)

Editor’s Note: One abstract by K. Hatanaka et al suggested that sulfated form of beta 1, 3 glucan prevented cytopathic effects of HIV in vitro while a low sulfate form did not. Hatanaka wrote: “Lentinian sulfate with a sulfur content of more than 13.9% effectively prevented HIV-induced cytopathic effects at concentrations of more than 3.3 micrograms/ml.” (3) However, HIV alone is not known to be cytopathic which leads to a primary question of cell culture contamination with HHV-6A and a secondary question of whether the sulfated form of beta glucan inhibited HHV-6A along with HIV.

A sulfated form of beta 1, 6 glucan “suppressed the giant cell formation of HIV-infected Molt-4 cells....and inhibited HIV-plaque formation...completely at 250 mcg/ml in MT4 cells”(4) The two abstracts which observed that sulfated forms of beta glucan had antiviral properties raises the possibility that combining a natural source of sulfur rich foods with beta glucan may give it an anti-viral effect. Regular Beta 1, 3 Glucan is not known to have a direct antiviral effect against HIV or other viruses. Beta glucan’s action is known to directly stimulate macrophage activity, hence its activity is considered an immune activator, not a direct anti-viral agent. Sulfur is a natural constituent of the amino acids L-Methionine and L-Cysteine and is the basis of many antiviral and antibacterial pharmaceutical drugs (i.e. Sulfa drugs). Too much sulfur from drugs can be toxic to the body, but what about natural sources of sulfur? (i.e. garlic, onions etc)

HHV-6A is known to cause bleeding in persons with AIDS (5). Within the past 4 months, two local persons with AIDS had bleeding problems that were stopped with the use of cayenne capsules. Dan had bleeding from the gums that would not stop. I offered him 2 cayenne capsules which he took with a glass of water. Within half an hour the bleeding completely stopped. A second PWA, Steve, was coughing up blood from the lungs, a serious problem. I offered to take him to the hospital and he refused, saying “what good will it do?” I then offered him cayenne capsules and he took 2 twice a day. Within 2 days, the bleeding stopped completely and has not returned. Does cayenne have a role in AIDS? Did the bleeding stop because the cayenne inactivated the HHV6A or did it stop the bleeding through some other unknown mode of action?

Several of our readers have told me that their T cell counts (CD4 and CD8) have increased since adding beta 1, 3 glucan to their protocols. These results have not been confirmed by scientific studies . A few readers thought they had better results taking both RyVital along with beta 1, 3 glucan in capsule form than taking either one alone.

1. Meira DA et al ; AM J Trop Med Hyg. 1996 Nov;55(5):496-503.

2. G Chihara; )Dev Biol Stand. 1992;77:191-7.

3. Hatanaka K, et al, Japan J Cancer Res. 1989 Feb;80(2):95-8.

4. Hirabayashi k, et al, Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 1989 Sep; 37(9):2410-2.

5. Neenyah Ostrom, The New York Native, Oct 10, 1994.

NIH/NIAID Officials question the value of rapidly rising CD4’s & Dr. David Ho’s “kitchen Sink” theory

Grossman and Herberman writing in Nature Medicine (May, 1997) challenge Dr. Ho’s theories that CD4 cells are being killed enmasse by HIV and state Ho’s conclusions “are tacitly based on several assumptions that either are inconsistent with the available data or lack empirical foundation.” They point to research that demonstrates very few CD4 cells are actually infected with HIV.

An article published by top government officials from NIAID/NIH and published in the same issue of Nature Medicine, (Vol 3, No 5, May, 1997, page 533), discusses a lack of restoration of immune function in persons using antiviral therapies (drug cocktails) or Interluken 2 who started with very low CD4 counts and have had significant increases in CD4 counts as a result of these therapies. The Nature Medicine article is co-authored by 14 government scientists including Clifford Lane. Here are some excerpts from this stunning article:

“Marked defects in CD4+ T cell function commonly precede substantial declines in peripheral CD4+ T cell counts. An early sign of these immune defects is an inability to respond to recall antigens in vivo or in vitro. In later stages of disease they are manifest by the development of opportunistic infections. At least two possibilities exist to explain the loss of antigen-specific responsiveness. The first of these is that antigen-specific CD4+ T cells are present however they respond poorly to the antigens against which they are directed. Alternatively, there could be a loss of the CD4+ T cell with antigen receptor specificity for the recall antigen in vitro or opportunistic pathogen in vivo... Memory T cells represent that part of the T cell repertoire that has been activated by exposure to antigen in the recent past. CD4+ T cells’ defense against opportunistic pathogens is felt to reside within the memory subset. In humans, the memory pool presumably includes CD4+ T cells with specificity for Pneumocystis Carinni, cytomegalovirus, Toxoplasma gondii and the majority of other agents associated with opportunistic infections....Although recently developed antiviral and immune-based therapies have become available that can dramatically increase the number of peripheral blood CD4+ T cells of HIV infected patients to normal or near normal levels, it remains uncertain whether these therapies will result in restoration of the immune system once severely damaged.....The loss of CD4+ T cells with specifity for particular antigens likely explains why patients lose their ability to respond to remote recall antigens and is the likely precipitating event in the development of opportunistic infection....Antiviral and immune-based therapies that raise CD4+ T cells may not result in an immediate restoration of diversity within that repertoire.”

The article appearing in Nature Medicine written by NIAID/NIH officials is like the firing of a shot over the bow of a ship. While the article did not specifically mention protease inhibitors/nucleoside combination therapies by name, it clearly was making a reference to these therapies in stating that “These data suggest that caution be used when considering discontinuation of prophylaxis for opportunistic infections in the setting of rapid increases in CD4+ T cells induced by therapy...” I

In reference to immune-based therapies that rapidly increase CD4 counts, interluken II (IL-2) was mentioned by name. High doses of IL-2 is not a therapy supported by this publication (See Report No 12). However, low-dose IL-2, has been shown to improve Natural Killer cell activity and is a therapy that I would support. This publication will not support any therapy that leads to rapid increases in CD4 cells of the TH2 type. However, any protocol that will increase CD4 cells with a TH1 response that activate the CD8 cytotoxic lymphocytes will have very significant value in restoring immune function to prevent opportunistic infections.

TRANSFER FACTOR

Antigen-Specific Transfer Factor will help sensitize the T cells to react to specific antigens. Therefore, transfer factor has a role in restoring T cell memory and filling the holes in the immune system’s repertoire, although there is no certainty that the use of transfer factor alone will shift the CD4s from the TH2 response back to the more effective TH1 response. To stimulate that shift, the most effective treatment we know of is DNCB. The issue of the TH1 or TH2 response of the CD4 cells was not addressed in the government’s article and also not addressed is the issue of whether the drug cocktails were promoting an even greater ineffective TH2 response of the CD4 cells. Clearly, any therapy that promotes a TH2 response (more antibody production) will not promote an immune response that clears infections inside the cells.

Anergy is a condition when the immune system does not respond to a challenge. Multitest CMI, a skin test for Anergy or delayed cutaneous hypersensitivity (DCH), was tested after the use of Antigen-Specific Transfer Factor. A PWA from New Jersey who had complete Anergy (no skin response) when his immune system was challenged with 7 antigens contained in Multitest CMI reported that after using transfer factor for 10 days, he had a better than 2mm reaction to 7 of 8 antigens. The transfer factor restored DCH.

What is significant is that transfer factor for 5 of the Multitest antigens, such as Tetanus and Streptococcus, while not contained in the transfer factor formula, still responded to the Multitest challenge. The wide range of skin reactions to Multitest suggest that the Antigen-Specific Tarnsfer Factor is sensitizing the immune system to react to many more antigens than that for which it was designed. This could be good news for persons with Anergy if these results can be duplicated on a larger scale. A.J. Lanigans’s product (manufactured by Chisolm Biologicals)1. has transfer factor specific for HIV-1, HHV-6 (from a CFIDS patient), Herpes 1 and 2, Epstein Barr virus, Cytomegalovirus, Mycobacterium avium, Cryptosporidium, Pneumocystic Carinni Pneumonia, Human Tuberculosis, Bovine Tuberculosis and Candida Albicans.

1. Chisolm Biologicals 800-664-1333 or 803-663-9618

One PWA with thrush used one capsule of transfer factor daily for 40 days and reported his thrush was gone without the help of antifungal medications. Another person with a persistent sinus infection stated that after one week of using transfer factor along with Beta 1, 3 Glucan, the sinus infection cleared up completely.

For persons asymptomatic (without symptoms or active infections), my own recommendation on using his product is to take one capsule daily for 20 days, skip 3 months and then take one daily for 10 days. Repeat this cycle 3 months later. Under this schedule, 40 capsules will last 9 months. The reason you do not need to take transfer factor daily is that once the T cells are sensitized, they will retain their memory to attack specific antigens for several months and in some cases years. Taking more transfer factor will not do any harm, nor will it do any good. Persons taking transfer factor for the first time can expect to feel worse before they feel better. In the first few days of using transfer factor, an immune activation will occur which will often result in low grade fevers, flu-like symptoms and sometimes even nausea. Some persons taking transfer factor along with beta 1, 3 glucan will break out with a cold. This may be actually a good sign - a weaker humoral response against the common cold may indicate a stronger cell-mediated response is developing. These symptoms will resolve in 3 to 10 days. Multitest CMI is an FDA approved test for measuring cell-mediated immunity that your physician can provide you through Connaught Labs. Anyone who has had one or more major opportunistic infections or who does not react to Multitest CMI should consider using transfer factor.

For persons with late-stage AIDS, I would suggest first going through a whole bottle. Start off with one a day for the first 7 days and then increase to one twice a day until the 40 capsules are gone. Repeat this higher dose once every 3 months if symptoms persist. Transfer factor and beta 1, 3 glucan may be used along with prescription drugs that are used to treat active infections as there is no information to suggest any drug interactions would develop. You should keep your physician informed of your use of transfer factor, beta 1, 3 glucan and other immune-based therapies. To address several questions raised in the last newsletter: First, A.J. Lanigan states that “antigen specific transfer factor does not contain any virus or pathogen.” According to Lanigan, transfer factor (TF) is made in a lab by a local biochemist who brings a purified antigen in contact with human CD4 cells. The CD4 cells produce transfer factor. The antigen-specific transfer factor is then filtered out of the CD4 culture and only pure transfer factor is given to a pregnant cow. The cow’s immune system is used to multiply the amount of human transfer factor which is later filtered out of the Colostrum. The transfer factor is freeze dried and encapsulated. If kept refrigerated, it should have a shelf life of about 5 years.

Several persons with CFIDS have asked if taking Antigen-Specific Transfer Factor will cause them to develop antibodies for HIV. Lanigan says it will not. However, because the concerns are not going away, he will soon have available an Antigen Specific Transfer Factor without the transfer factor for HIV for persons with CFIDS and other conditions like EBV and candidiasis. Note: We do not have sufficient information about the efficacy of this product to recommend that someone treat a condition like Tuberculosis with TF alone.

“Designer Protein,” “Immunocal” or raw unpasteurized milk for increased lean muscle mass and L-Glutathione

Several published studies have indicated that increasing L-Glutathione levels decreases viral activity against a wide spectrum of viruses(1). Published studies have shown that a cold processed whey product called “Immunocal” (Immunotec Corp) increases L-glutathione levels over a period of several months. In Canada, FDA trials are underway testing Immunocal (2) as a treatment for AIDS. No data has been released at this time but the product has recently been introduced as a dietary supplement. Immunocal’s main drawback is its cost.

No controlled studies have been done using a lower priced competitive product called “Designer Protein” (Next Nutrition - sold by Buyer’s Clubs and in health food stores). Designer Protein is lactose free, cold processed and membrane filtered. I know 3 persons with AIDS who all gained a significant amount of lean muscle mass using Designer Protein. One PWA had L-Glutathione levels tested before he started and they were subnormal. After using 2 scoops daily of the Designer Protein, the Glutathione levels returned to normal levels in 2 months. Designer Protein remains a very popular supplement sold at Buyer’s Clubs and Health Food Stores across the country. Many PWA’s use it to reverse wasting syndrome. Others use it for the higher energy levels and the well being they receive.

Raw milk is illegal in most states because of fears from public officials of contamination. In the 1950’s, when I was a teenager and lived on a farm, I drank unpasturized milk for more than a decade and never once became ill from contaminated milk. In fact, hundreds of thousands of American dairy farmers drink raw milk daily. Raw goat’s milk has acquired a reputation for having powerful rejuvenative powers in many chronic conditions. L-Glutathione is also found abundantly in avocados.

Immunocal: Montreal, Quebec. In Canada, Immunocal is sold under the name HMS-90. I spoke with a French Canadian, Bernard, who told me over 20 of his friends who are HIV+ are using Immunocal. He said they are reporting improved energy, vision and gains in muscle mass. Bernard told of a friend who used one packet daily who could not use protease inhibitors due to a damaged liver. After two months, he had a 30% gain in his CD4 and CD8 counts and improvements in other blood parameters. Bernard can be reached at 514-354-3174. Another Canadian, Roman, told me Immunocal helped remit personal psoriasis patches. (Roman - 514-485-2165). Note: both Bernard and Roman are distributors of Immunocal.

1. AIDSLINE/MEDLINE (NLM)

2. Immunocal (Immunotec Research Ltd, 292 Adrien Patenaude, Vaudreuil, Quebec, J7V5V5 (514-424-9992)

DHEA

A local PWA who uses DNCB weekly skin patches to stimulate Delayed Type Hypersensitivity (DTH) reactions reports that DHEA enhances the DTH responses. He used 50 mg daily. One of the most documented articles on the scientific benefits of DHEA ever published was brought to my attention by a local AIDS activist, Jim Prentice. After reading over 150 articles published in medical journals, he selected one written by William Regelson, Roger Loria and Mohammed Kalimi that was published in the Annals New York Academy of Sciences (May 31, 1994, Vol 719). Here is part of what they wrote:

“DHEA has likened to an “anti-hormone” which cannot serve to excite in the true classical sense of hormone action, but de-excites metabolic processes which overproduce when DHEA is in short supply....Recent broad reviews of DHEA and more specific presentations on immunity, cardiovascular diseases, obesity, carcinogenesis, hepatic function, mitochondrial metabolism, insulin action and receptor availability have been published....Pregnenolone, derived from cholesterol, is a major precursor for all three major groups of adrenal steroids... In stress, or serious illness, there is a shift in pregnenolone metabolism away from DHEA and its sulfate production to that of the glucocorticoids....Studies have demonstrated that DHEA, at pharmacologic dosage, given subcutaneously, acts to enhance immune resistance to viral and bacterial infection....This enhanced resistance to infection is mediated by counteracting the immunosuppressing effects of glucocorticoids(GCS) DHEA has been shown to stimulate T cell proliferation and IL-2 production...according to Daynes’ group, the primary immunologic target of DHEA is the TH-1 subclass of the CD4+ T cell population leading to increased lymphokine IL-2 production with enhanced cytotoxic activity and reduced lymphokine IL4 levels....The maintenance of IFN-gamma production by DHEA may explain some of its in vivo antiviral activity...The presence of an infection, as a stress, is necessary for DHEA to show its immunostimulating action.”

The article just quoted contains 79 scientific references. It documents that in chronic illnesses such as AIDS, Lupus, burn injuries and many others, DHEA levels are suppressed. DHEA levels peak at age 24 and then decline about 20% every 10 years.

DHEA is sold over the counter in pharmacies and health food stores.. Suggested dose for adult males is 25 to 50 mg. daily, for women, 10 mg daily. I advise against higher doses. A plant sterol that mimics DHEA is found in Wild Yams and in domestic Yams sold in local grocery stores. A comparable dose is unknown to me at this time.

Who should not use DHEA?

Recent published research indicates that DHEA levels are elevated in persons with KS. Anyone with KS, cancer, lymphoma or using protease inhibitors should have their DHEA blood levels checked by their physician before determining if DHEA is needed. If DHEA levels are normal or elevated, the use of DHEA would not be recommended. In an article published in the Journal of Clinical Pathology 1997;50:341-345, French researchers found elevated levels of DHEA, testosterone and androgens in persons with KS. Dr. Nevena Christeff treated 32 men with KS using Interferon alpha-2A. Following treatment, 24 men had achieved KS remission and 8 men did not. The decrease in androgen levels appeared to correlate to the KS remissions and to the Interferon treatment.

From my own viewpoint because many of these hormones are derived from lipids, persons with KS, lymphoma or cancer would do better on a low fat diet. Concerning protease inhibitors, they are known to interfere with the P450 cytochrome liver detoxification system. In other words, protease inhibitors interfere with liver metabolism and can increase steroid levels including DHEA and testosterone. Also, persons taking protease inhibitors often gain weight in the form of fat due to the increased steroid levels.

“Complete Thymic Formula” and “Jarrow Pak Plus”

Rotation schedule proposed:

Several persons using Complete Thymic Formula have reported increases in CD8s and WBCs. The product is believed to improve cell-mediated immunity. It contains over 60 vitamins, minerals and antioxidants like selenium along with several thymic and glandular extracts. Dr. Carson Burgstiner MD, who developed this formula, reports that it improves immunity against hepatitis and herpes viruses. However, the formula also contains echinacea and golden seal, two herbs that should not be used daily. Published research indicates that taking echinacea intermittently will enhance the immune response whereas using it every day will suppress it.

For this reason, I am recommending that it be rotated with Jarrow Pak Plus. The Chinese herbs in Jarrow Pak Plus are different than the herbs in Complete Thymic Formula and by using each only 3 days a week and taking one day off, you have a 4 day interval between the two groups of herbs. The herbs in Jarrow Pak Plus enhance white blood cell counts. Both supplements should be taken with meals. Jarrow Pak Plus comes in one packet taken once daily. With Complete Thymic Fomrula, the usual dose is 3 tablets with meals taken twice a day. A few persons report feeling nervous from its use and had to reduce the dose. When using Complete Thymic Formula for the first time, take one tablet twice daily and observe you react to the supplement before increasing to the full recommended dose.

Ampligen - restores DCH, reduces titers for both HHV-6 and HIV. For more info, call 905-841-2300. Under FDA trials in Canada. Also see Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infect Dis., Dec, 1996, vol 15, pp 580-87.

A SUMMARY OF THE MOST IMPORTANT IMMUNE-BASED THERAPIES

1. Naltrexone - 3 mg daily as directed

2. DNCB - one weekly topical application as directed.

3. Antigen-Specific Transfer Factor - use intermittently as directed

. 4. Beta 1, 3 Glucan. It is also found in RyVital or Oralmat, extracts of sprouted rye developed by Schmacher Ltd that contain other natural immune activators like genistein. A good combination is to use 3 drops of RyVital or Oralmat 3 times daily plus one 100 mg capsule of Beta 1, 3 Glucan. Food sources of beta 1, 3 glucan: sprouted rye seeds - best choice - use 2 tablespoons daily or use 1/4 cup of wheat grass or barley sprouts and/or one or two raw shiitake mushrooms daily.

5. Designer Protein - one scoop twice daily or drink 2 glasses of raw goat’s milk or 2 glasses daily of raw cow’s milk as the next best choice or Immunocal - 2 or 3 packets daily.

6. “Complete Thymic Formula” and “Jarrow Pak Plus”: Both formulas contain herbs that I believe should not be used every day on a continuous basis. Rotate these two vitamin/mineral/herbal formulas so the herbs are used intermittently, not continuously. Use Complete Thymic Formula 3 days and switch to Jarrow Pak Plus for 3 days and then use neither for one day. The rotation of these two formulas is expected to help prevent a TH1 to TH2 shift in the CD4s and to yield better lab results on total lymphocyte, T cell and white blood cell counts. Note: Thymic Factors without the vitamins/minerals or herbs are available from Vitamin Center at 714-661-9045. Another product called BioPro Thymic Protein A comes in packets and is available from Longevity Science - 800-654-4432. Separate Vitamin/mineral supplements may need to be taken if either of these thymic products are used.

Notice for persons using protease inhibitors or who have impaired liver function. Have your blood monitored before taking any vitamin or mineral supplements to determine if elevated levels of various vitamins already exist. Protease Inhibitors impair the cytochrome P450 liver detoxification system (1) leading to elevated levels in steroids and other substances naturally produced within the body as well elevated levels of any drug or dietary supplement you ingest. Project Inform has listed 45 drugs that are not compatible with Norvir. Persons taking protease inhibitors generally have elevated liver enzymes and the stronger the protease inhibitors, the more impaired will be the liver function. A few persons using Crixivan have reported their skin turning yellow. Apoptosis (normal cell death) which requires protease activation is also impaired by protease inhibitors and may lead to increases in various kinds of lymphomas and cancers. Persons with impaired liver function should obtain their supplements from superfoods and whole food sources: blue green algae, brewer’s yeast, blackstrap molasses, fresh fruit and freshly prepared vegetable juices (carrot, celery, beet, parsley and kale are your better choices). They should also take the amino acid, L-Methionine, 500 mg once daily. L-Methionine helps detoxify the liver and improve its function.

1. AIDS. 1996 Nov; 10 Suppl 1:S21-5.

7. TRANS FATTY ACID FREE DIET - eliminate all processed foods containing vegetable oils heated over the boiling temperature of water. Trans fatty acids produce cell membranes that are defective - they have pin holes in them making them easy targets for viruses to gain entry. Foods containing trans fatty acids: All deep fried foods - fried fish, chicken and shrimp, french fries, pizza, margarine, donuts, most pastry, candy bars, potato chips, corn chips, cookies etc. Any food containing hydrogenated fats. Processed foods not containing trans fatty acids include all that are labeled FAT FREE as well as angel food cake and ice cream. Naturally, all vegetables and fruits, legumes, beans, peas and sprouts are free of trans fatty acids. Boiled fish, chicken and other meats are acceptable. Meats cooked in a Crock Pot at low temperature are even more easily digested. With the exception of coconut oil, butter and Extra Virgin Olive Oil, avoid all other liquid vegetable oils for frying or cooking purposes. The more unsaturated the oil and the higher the temperature, the more trans fatty acids will form. These misshaped fat particles impair enzyme functions and weaken the integrity of cell membranes against foreign invasions. Cold pressed vegetable oils with the antioxidant BHT or Vitamin E added or unrefined cold pressed oils containing natural antioxidants may be used on salads. These oils should be kept refrigerated.

8. USE ESSENTIAL FATTY ACIDS (EFAs). Do not use fish oil capsules. Published studies indicate there are no health benefits to be derived from these supplements. The most likely cause is that most of these oils have gone rancid. Consider Evening Primrose oil - one capsule twice daily. Viobin brand of wheat germ oil. Whole Flaxseed -freshly ground in a coffee grinder and used daily on cereal or in yogurt. One tablespoon daily of fresh ground whole flax seed is recommended.

9. LOW SUGAR DIET - white sugar and corn syrup found in many desserts impair phagacytosis of white blood cells and impairs their ability to engulf and eat viruses. The worst offenders are found in canned soda, candy bars, pastry and other processed desserts. Acceptable sources of sugar are raw honey, fruit and maple syrup. I have had reports that maple syrup is even well tolerated by persons with candidiasis. For a sugar substitute, avoid saccharin and Nutrasweet. Instead use the herb Stevia as a sweetener substitute. Persons with diarrhea, KS, lymphoma or gastrointestinal problems should also consider a Gluten -Free diet. When the protein “gluten” is not properly digested, it can result in the production of antibodies directed against gluten byproducts. This has been found to happen in Crohn's disease. This promotes a TH2 response in the CD4s. Glutens are found in wheat, oats and barley. For more information on a gluten free diet, see the diet plan in my book on “How To Reverse Immune Dysfunction.”

10. Optional - Free Form Amino Acids: L-Tyrosine - 500 mg daily for depression and low body temperature, improves thyroid function. L-Methionine - 500 mg daily as a liver detoxifier. NAC (N-acetyl Cysteine) - 500 or 600 mg daily to increase L-glutathione levels - take only with Designer Protein, Immunocal or raw milk. L-Lysine - 500 to 1000 mg up to 3 times daily when active herpes infections are present. It is very important to avoid chocolate and most kinds of raw nuts that are high in L-arginine, an amino acid that stimulates herpes virus replication. HHV-6A is in the herpes family and this is a very dangerous virus. As a general rule, avoid taking more than 500 mg every day of any free form amino acid, except for short durations for special needs.

IMMUNE-BASED THERAPIES WITH DIRECT ANTIVIRAL ACTIVITY

1. Lemon/Olive oil drink - use daily until saliva pH is at a normal 6.4, then use 3 or more times a week as needed.

2. Raw Garlic- 3 or 4 cloves sliced and eaten daily with rye crisp. Raw garlic stimulates Natural Killer cell activity and is a very powerful antiviral, antifungal , antibacterial and antiparastic food. Eating fresh Parsley with the garlic can help deodorize the effects of garlic without lessening its effectiveness.

3. Ozone rectal insufflation - use 1 to 3 times weekly. Do not use daily. An oxidative therapy that stimulates IL-2 production within the body. Best used intermittently and not overdone. Ozonated olive oil, freshly made, may be topically applied over any area, except the eyes, where there is an infection, inflammation or pain. See my book for more information.

DETOXIFICATION, EXERCISE AND DIET

1. Freshly prepared vegetable and fruit juices. (Best juices are equal parts of carrot, celery, beet, beet greens, parsley and kale). 1 or 2 cups daily will yield amazing results in how you feel within a few days. Fruit juices: blue grape or red grape, cranberry and/or lemon/orange and grapefruit combined.

2. Immune Enhancement diet and macrobiotic diet. See my book for diet plan. For macrobiotic diets, see “The Way of Hope,” by Michio Kushi. Note: The use of sea vegetables (i.e. Wakame) has been shown to help prevent cancer.

3. Exercise is critical to move lymph fluid and to stimulate the kidneys and liver into processing metabolic byproducts. Aerobic exercise and even just walking one-half hour or more twice daily will produce many benefits including improved digestion and increases endorphin levels. Exercise is a natural remedy for depression. Jumping on a trampoline 5 minutes daily helps move lymph fluid quite effectively.

4. Methylsulfonylmethane (MSM) is a natural form of sulfur found in all living green vegetables, grass and plants, sea vegetables and in blue/green algae. MSM is a metabolite of dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO). It is destroyed by the cooking process and by dehydration. A patent (No. 4,973,605) for the manufacturer of MSM was filed by Robert Herschler of Camas, WA. The information filed with the patent states that MSM has indicated the following biological effects: prevents the formation of tumors, lymphomas and cancers in cancer-prone mice. It has been reported beneficial in the following conditions: stress reduction, preventing parasitic infections, allergic reactions, constipation, lung dysfunction, a mood elevator, arthritis, leg and back cramps, muscle spasms, hypertension, eye irritations, connective tissue, antidepressant, increased ability to concentrate, speeds wound healing, increases platelet counts, smoother skin, healthier hair and nails. There are reports that MSM has an alkalizing effect on the body. One PWA whose saliva pH was 6.0 or less started taking 1000 mg of MSM daily and reported that after 3 days, his saliva pH increased to 6.8. If these reports hold, MSM could be very valuable for persons with chronic conditions who are constantly acidic. Acidosis is a condition related to a buildup of toxins and waste products in the body that are not efficiently eliminated by the kidneys and liver. See my book for more information on how to balance your pH. This PWA also reported a reduction in swollen lymph nodes since starting on MSM.

The patent report stated that raw milk is a rich source of MSM, but the MSM is destroyed by the pasteurization process. Cows grazing on green grass have a higher MSM levels in their milk than those fed dried grains or dried hay. MSM is now sold in capsule form in health food stores. Published literature indicates that MSM is non-toxic even when taken at high levels. Recently, one PWA decided to try taking one MSM capsule (1000 MG) with Beta 1, 3 Glucan to see if the MSM form of sulfur combined with the Beta Glucan would give it an anti-viral effect against both of the AIDS viruses -HHV-6A and HIV. If you are a person who does not daily consume raw green vegetables, then taking one MSM capsule daily should be considered.

5. Coffee Retention Enemas for liver detoxification. Recommended by Sherry Rogers MD in her book “Wellness Against All Odds.” The book contains instructions on how to do the enemas properly. Published by Prestige Publishing, PO Box 3068, Syracuse, NY 13220. Coffee enemas were actually listed in Merck Manual until 1977! Coffee enemas are recommended when liver enzymes are elevated and in all cases of cancer on a daily basis until the cancer is gone. They cause the immediate release of large quantities of toxins from the liver through the bile ducts.

6. Colonics - cleans the lower colon. Helps remove toxins and with liver and lymphatic detoxification. Colonics have been slandered in many pharmaceutically funded publications. I met a local lady who is 75 years old who has given herself a colonic every week for the past 50 years.

7. Castor Oil packs: Castor oil packs with a heating pad are recommended over the liver area when liver enzymes are elevated or liver function is impaired. Also over the pancreas when it’s function is impaired. The packs may be applied over any area of the body where there is inflammation or pain. When done over the thymus gland (upper chest area, it stimulates T Cell production and helps clear the lungs. See my book for instructions. Suggested uses: up to 3 times per week. Daily use not recommended.

ANTIVIRAL THERAPIES

The anti-viral therapies I am recommending are those that, while based on limited information, are considered to be effective against both HHV-6A and HIV. Treating HIV alone without also treating HHV-6A is considered an ineffective way of dealing with AIDS as HHV-6A is cytopathic (destroys cells) while HIV does not destroy cells. HIV’s most important role in AIDS is to stimulate replication of HHV-6A through the HIV tat gene.

1. Lauric Acid (from coconut oil, coconut milk, fresh or cooked coconut). 24 grams of lauric acid daily for adults. See related article. This treatment may be used continuously. Viral resistance is not expected to develop nor is immune system resistance likely to develop.

ANTI-VIRAL THERAPIES LISTED BELOW SHOULD BE ROTATED EVERY 30 DAYS. Lauric acid may be used continuously.

Rotation is an important therapeutic approach intended to prevent two problems: viral resistance and/or immune system resistance. In immune system resistance, antibodies or enzymes are produced by the body to inactivate durable substances in these products. In immune system resistance, B cells produce antibodies and there is a rapid rise in the CD4 counts of the TH2 type response. These TH2 type CD4s do not protect against thrush, fungal or other opportunistic infections and suppress CD8 cytotoxic lymphocyte activity. This same phenomena is occurring in thousands of persons using protease inhibitors in combination with AZT or D4T. CD4 counts rise several hundred points but they do not protect against opportunistic infections. The most effective way of using all the anti-virals in this section is to rotate them every 30 days. Protease inhibitors are not recommended as they impair liver function, elevate liver enzymes, stop normal cell death (apoptosis). The prevention of normal apoptosis will eventually lead to the development of lymphomas and cancers as the cells switch their energy production from oxidation to fermentation.

2. Olive leaf tea or Olive leaf capsules. For instructions on how to make olive leaf tea, see my last newsletter or my book. Olive leaf extract in capsule form is available from East Park Research or from Roex Inc. (Also see list of advertisers at end of article). I have insufficient information about other brands to make any further recommendations at this time. Adult dose: 1/2 cup of the tea twice daily or two capsules twice daily. Benefits: decreases in swollen lymph nodes indicating effectiveness against HHV-6A; lowers HIV viral load (P24 antigen test or PCR), reduced KS lesions in a few cases. Contraindications: Persons with low blood pressure should not use olive leaf extract as it may further lower the blood pressure. One person developed a rash indicating an allergic reaction.

3. Larreastat : Adult dose: one capsule twice daily. Benefits: reduced KS lesions in a few cases. Reduces swollen lymph nodes (HHV-6A) and lowers HIV viral loads. Larreastat is effective against herpes and was effective against CMV in one case. Contraindications: Two persons developed a pain in the liver area and had to discontinue use. One of the two persons had hepatitis and the other later had a gall bladder removed. Larreastat is not recommended for anyone with elevated liver enzymes or a damaged liver.

4. Clarkia - 100: Adult Dose: 40 drops 3 times a day. Reduces swollen lymph nodes (HHV-6A) and lowers HIV viral load; kills parasites. Black walnut is part of this formula and is effective against herpes type viruses. I have confirmed several case reports where P24 antigen has gone negative and some recently where PCR for HIV has become non-detectable. Contraindications: none known.

5. Melissa (Lemon Balm): Adult dose: 1 tablespoon of the alcohol-based tincture twice daily (the last one being before bedtime). After several volunteers for Keep Hope Alive tried Lemon Balm using either a formula made in a crock pot or a cold processed one made with alcohol, the cold processed method made with alcohol was clearly more effective. Benefits: Swollen lymph nodes were reduced significantly indicating effectiveness against HHV-6A. Several persons have told me that lemon balm is more effective against herpes than Acyclovir.

Contraindications: Persons with thyroid conditions should have their function monitored while using lemon balm. In some cases, it may depress thyroid function. No other side effects known.

How to make Melissa herbal tincture.

Place 8 ounces of dried cut Lemon Balm leaves in a one gallon porcelain, glass or ceramic container. Add 5 pounds (80 ounces) of 80 proof vodka. Stir and let stand at room temperature for 12 to 15 days. Pour through a cheese cloth or terry cloth placed in a strainer to remove the herb pulp. Pour one cup at a time and lift the cloth up and squeeze the cloth into a ball to extract the tincture. The tincture may be stored at room temperature in a dark cabinet or refrigerated. Suggestions: For persons sensitive to alcohol, try substituting apple cider vinegar for the alcohol and make it the same way. Another way is to take one rounded teaspoon of the dried herb and mix it in a glass of water or vegetable juice and take it twice daily.

OTHER IMPORTANT CHANGES FROM OUR LAST NEWSLETTER:

Valacyclovir is dropped from our list of products to use for herpes and HHV-6A after the manufacturer (Burroughs Welcome) reported some deaths occurred in persons with impaired kidney function. Acyclovir is still on our approved list as a safe drug for use in herpes conditions but its effectiveness against HHV-6A was questioned recently by Donald Carrigan. Ocular implants of Ganciclovir are still considered safe for CMV, but the iv drip is not safe for continuous use. Both Ganciclovir and Foscarnet are effective against HHV-6A and CMV but have too many side effects to use on a continuous basis. However, short term use for crisis management of CMV is warranted until cell-mediated immunity is restored with the immune-based and detoxification therapies. DDI may be safe to use short term and could be rotated with the other antivirals listed above. However, several persons using DDI long term have developed pancreatitis making this drug’s long term use very questionable. As for AZT, D4T, DDC and all the protease inhibitors, none are known to be effective against HHV-6A and none would have any long term benefit for persons with AIDS. All of them have too many side effects, making their use for more than a few months unsafe.

DESIGNING YOUR OWN PROTOCOL

A total of 13 of the very best immune-based therapies I know of have been listed in this newsletter. Use as many as you can reasonably incorporate into your daily or weekly regimen. In addition, 7 major detoxification, diet and nutritional protocols have been suggested. Several of the protocols I recommend do not involve taking any pills, but require lifestyle changes. Again, use as many as you can reasonably incorporate into your daily or weekly schedule. As for the four herbal anti-viral therapies, consider them as an adjunct. Use one or two at a time and rotate those where rotation is indicated. Do not keep piling on every new product you read about in a new article. Do not take Chinese herbal formulations every day. Do not take Lipoic acid daily. Intermittently is OK, but not every day. One person sent me a list of 50 different products he was taking daily. He complained he wasn’t feeling good. I advised him to stop everything for a week and give his liver a rest. LISTEN TO YOUR BODY. If you feel worse after using a drug or supplement, stop using whatever is making you feel worse and detoxify. See “Rapid Recovery Procedures” in the chapter on diet in my book. Get out the food juicer and make some fresh vegetable juices.

STRESS REDUCTION

It should be mentioned that stress reduction has helped resolve many kinds of symptoms, improved well being and even lab results. Some persons have had significant improvements in their health after taking a vacation. Body massage and soothing music can help one achieve a deep state of relaxation. Exercise (walking), drinking clean water and surrounding yourself in a natural environment can also help. A walk in the woods or listening to the sound of a water falls can be very smoothing to the mind. Physical exercise that is fun, like swimming, playing basketball, tennis, ping pong, volley ball and other sports are all enjoyable as well as therapeutic.

Before making any major decisions - PRAY. Ask God for direction. That is what I do each time I write this newsletter. Hundreds of readers have called or written and thanked me for the work I am doing. I deeply appreciate the kind words of support. Hundreds have asked for the Pieta Prayer books. Some have even made the effort to say the prayers daily and have had profound spiritual awakenings and experiences. Life is like a school, a continuous process of learning , growth, and hopefully, spiritual development, an atunement that raises our level of consciousness.

Diagnostics: THE MOST IMPORTANT DIAGNOSTIC TESTS for AIDS or CFIDS

The most important diagnostic markers to indicate whether or not immune function is being restored are:

1. Multitest CMI (Skin Test for Anergy or DCH) - measures the ability of the immune system to see and respond to an invasion of foreign antigens (infections). Multitest CMI measures Cell-mediated Immunity. /available from Connaught Labs, Swiftwater, PA 717-839-5467 or 800-822-2463

2. Total CD8 count (add to this the CD4 count and total. The higher the combined number, the better, as long as the CD8s are at least twice as high as the CD4s.).

3. Total Absolute Natural Killer Cell count (ideally 200 or higher)

4. Natural Killer Cell Function Tests (Test code 5420 - Specialty Labs, Santa Monica, CA 800-421-7110).

5. Lymph Node Biopsies for HHV-6A - available from Herpes Virus Diagnostics. (See related article)

6. Beta 2 micro-globulin levels decrease (indicates less cell destruction - Possibly less HHV-6A in the cells, although other pathogens can also increase Beta 2 levels.. Non-progressors have less than 1.5. Those over 3.0 are candidates for lymphomas and KS).

7. Total White Blood Cell count (WBC) - this is the foundation (sum total) of all your immune cells which includes the CD4s, NK cells, CD8s and all the other subsets of white blood cells. Ideal range - 5000 to 10,000.

8. Body temperature: when it is below normal (98.6 degrees F) is an indicator or impaired energy production in the cells and Anergy.

9. Saliva pH: when it is below 6.4 is a condition of over acidity in the body which correlates to increased viral replication. When it is too far above 6.4, it indicates poor/slow digestion and absorption of proteins.

10. P24 Antigen test (for HIV). This measures the quantity of core HIV viral protein, not viral fragments as does quantitative PCR for HIV (Roche Amplicor). If you need a more sensitive and reliable test than P24, forget PCR and bDNA and go directly to the Western Blot test, which is very accurate and reliable.

Voodoo Diagnostics? PCR (quantitative) of blood plasma for HIV viral load (Roche Amplicor) and Chiron’s RNA bDNA quantitative test for HIV.

New information indicates that both of these tests, although widely promoted in the media, may be very inaccurate. In the June, 1997, issue of POZ magazine, Lark Lands reports PCR’s accuracy can vary by 5 fold in either direction. She said that a person with a PCR viral load count of 5000 could have an actual viral load as low as 1000 or as high as 25,000. Kerry Mullis, who won the Nobel Peace Prize for discovering PCR, has publicly stated his doubts that quantitative PCR can accurately measure viral load. He said that PCR was never designed to quantify anything, but was only designed to determine the presence of a pathogen in small quantities (a qualitative test). In Spin magazine (Feb. 1997), an article written by Celia Farber tells of a person, Rodney Knoll, who is HIV negative, who had a higher viral count for HIV by PCR than his friend, Christine Maggiore, president of HEAL, who is HIV+. It would be interesting for a group of persons, HIV negative on the Elisa and Western Blot, to have their blood samples tested by PCR and/or bDNA to see what their HIV viral load is. It is further interesting to note that both Chiron and Roche warn against using their tests for an HIV+ diagnosis. Are they hiding something?

One reader of Positive Health News had both Chiron’s bDNA and Roche’s PCR done in the same day by two different physicians. The PCR came back at 80,000 while the bDNA test came back at 120,000. Meanwhile, an attempt to correlate the quantity of a key HIV viral protein in blood plasma , the P24 antigen, to PCR numbers is proving fruitless. An article appearing in Nature Medicine (Vol 3, No 5, May 1997) is a real eye opener. The article is written by 14 top government scientists at NIAID and NIH. A chart on page 534 lists bDNA viral load values and P24 antigen values side by side. The numbers for 11 patients listed do not even began to correlate. For example, patient 4 shows a HIV RNA count of 374,000 and a P24 antigen count of 10,350 while patient 7 shows a HIV RNA count of 356,000 and a P24 value of 18. Do you see something wrong here? I do. Each HIV virus need at least one RNA plate and one P24 core protein. Where are the rest of the P24 core proteins to match up with the RNA plates? Second theory: It takes a quantity of more than one RNA plate for each P24 antigen to equal one live virus. If so, how many? If you divide 374,000 by 10,350, you get a ratio of about 36 to 1 or 36 RNA plates to one P24 antigen. If bDNA or PCR are accurate measurements of HIV viral load, then it needs to have a consistent ratio to the P24 antigen or the whole test is flawed. Consider patient no. 7 and divide 356,000 by 18 and you get a ratio of nearly 20,000 to one! Now, how many RNA plates do we have per single HIV virus? Is it 20,000 or 36? Are their 20,000 RNA plates to one P24 core HIV protein or 36 or something in between? Should physicians and patients make treatment decisions based on “numbers” of HIV no more accurate than if you threw the PCR probe at a dart board and accepted whatever number it lands on as “yours?”

What test do I trust? The P24 antigen test, since it counts the real nuts and bolts of a key viral protein in blood plasma called P24. I trust PCR only as a qualitative test to measure the presence of a virus and I agree with Kerry Mullis that PCR was never designed to quantitate anything. Also, when PCR probes are finding HIV RNA plates in persons who are HIV negative (on Elisa and Western Blot tests), how can anyone who is HIV+ be certain of what is being measured? Are the numbers on the lab results HIV or something else? If the PCR probes are not accurate, they should be sent back to the design lab. Treatment decisions should not be based on Voodoo Diagnostics.

AN INTERVIEW WITH MARK CORREA

May 24, 1997:

Mark Correa is a 24 year old male living in La Habra, California.

Konlee: What drug cocktail combination were you on?

Correa: Norvir, DDI and D4T. Previously, I had been on AZT and 3TC, but it did nothing for me.

Konlee: How long were you on the combination of Norvir, DDI, D4T?

Correa: About 2 and 1/2 months. I started them in January and stopped in March.

Konlee: What happened to you after you started on the drug cocktail combination?

Correa: My CD4s increased from 16 to 186. My CD8s were 282. My viral load went to non-detectable levels, but the increase in my CD4s and the decrease in viral load counts did nothing for my immune system. I suddenly found myself with all kinds of new infections. I got KS, disseminated herpes, fungal infections, thrush and PCP. After I started on Norvir, my liver enzymes became elevated. The Norvir is really hard on your gastrointestinal tract. The drugs made me feel like I was in someone’s else’s body, like an alien. I felt like hell.

Konlee: Were you tested for Delayed Cutaneous Hypersensitivity (DCH)?

Correa: While I was in the hospital for PCP, they did a skin test for anergy and I had almost no reactions.

Konlee: What happened when you stopped the drug cocktail combo?

Correa: My CD8s increased from 282 to 700.

Konlee: Did you try the whole lemon/olive oil drink?

Correa: I started that in March right after I stopped the Norvir, DDI and D4T. I used 2 tablespoons of Extra Virgin Olive Oil with one whole lemon and did this twice a day. After starting on the whole lemon drink, my CD8s climbed to 700.

Konlee: What happened to your CD4s?

Correa: They dropped to 4. However, I don’t mind since I feel really good now. Whenever I drink the whole lemon/olive oil drink, I feel great energy for several hours. It is incredible what this simple drink does.

Konlee: Blood measurements for CD4 counts as a reflection of the total number of these cells is your body are no more accurate than PCR viral load counts using blood plasma. What probably happened is that your CD4s switched response from the TH2 type to the TH1 response. The CD4s left your blood stream and went into your lymph system and to the site of active intracellular infections. Here, the TH1 type CD4s direct the CD8 cytotoxic lymphocytes to attack cells infected with HHV-6A, HIV and other infections. What I am saying is that your total CD4s may not have decreased at all. They changed location moving from the blood where they were useless TH2 Zombies to the lymph and other sites as active CD4 TH1 type infection fighters. Knox and Carrigan have observed that big increases in CD4s in the blood are accompanied by a big decrease in CD4s in the lymph nodes and that at the same time, a disaster goes on in the lymph nodes. On the other hand, a big decrease in CD4s in the blood may be good news if it means a big increase in TH1 type CD4s in the lymph nodes where they help prevent further destruction of the lymphoid tissue by HHV-6A. What other immune-based therapies have you tried?

Correa: My doctor gave me a prescription for Naltrexone (3 mg) which I take once a day in the evening. I’m working on switching my whole treatment protocol to immune-based therapies and diet.

Konlee: Have you tried lemon balm?

Correa: When I tried made it in the Crock Pot, it did not do much for me, but when I made it with the alcohol (cold processed), it completely finished reducing my swollen lymph nodes. My herpes also went completely away. I no longer need the Acyclovir.

Konlee: What else are you doing?

Correa: I use one Beta 1, 3 Glucan capsule twice daily. It has an energizing effect. I also use the RyVital.

Konlee: You used both A.J. Lanigan’s Beta 1, 3 Glucan and the RyVital?

Correa: After I added the RyVital, I found that KS lesions I had on my feet disappeared. When I stopped the RyVital, the lesions started to come back. When I resumed using the RyVital, the lesions went completely away.

Konlee: How many KS lesions did you have on your feet?

Correa: I had 8 on my right foot and 4 on my left. After using the RyVital, they went away. I am sure the RyVital has something to do with it.

Konlee: What else are you doing?

Correa: I started taking SEES-2000. I used to be short of breath. Now, I can breathe normally. I feel like my lungs are completely opened. I am just amazed what these alternative therapies are doing for me. Occasionally, I use Astragalus, but not every day. I also just started using coconut oil - one tablespoon 3 times a day. I started this May 22nd. Most of the time, I just take it straight. Sometimes, I mix it with orange juice. As for diet, I stopped eating all fried meats, french fries and other sources of trans fatty acids. I eat 3 or 4 cloves of raw garlic daily, usually with rye crisp. I eat meats and vegetables cooked in a Crock Pot at the low setting. I am eating more raw vegetables. I also lightly steam vegetables. I completely avoid junk foods - candy bars, pastry and canned soda. I feel so much more energy since I changed my diet.

Konlee: Are you following the diet plan in my book?

Correa: Actually, I haven’t got your book yet. I am fighting with the government to get on disability and my funds are limited.

Konlee: I’ll donate a copy of my book to you. Would you mind if readers contact you?

Correa: I don’t have a private phone number yet, but they can write to me. I expect to have new lab results in June. However, I am not going to make changes in my protocol based on viral load counts or CD4s. I just feel too good doing what I am doing. I believe in the CD8s, the Natural Killer cells and that the virus to beat is HHV-6. When I was on Norvir, I still had swollen lymph nodes, so Norvir could not be doing anything against the HHV-6. Now, I feel great, my KS lesions are gone and my swollen lymph nodes are gone. My herpes is gone and I can breathe normally. My energy is great and I no longer feel like I am in an alien’s body. I am not going to trade all this for some numbers on a piece of paper. I am grateful for all the information Keep Hope Alive has provided. I don’t know what I would have done without it.

Konlee: Thank you and thank you for sharing this information with our readers. Letters may to sent to - Mark Correa, 540 W Florence Ave, La Habra, CA 90631. Include a stamped, self addressed envelope.

COPYRIGHT*, June, 1997 Keep Hope Alive PO Box 27041 West Allis, WI 53227 262-548-4344 *Permission to reprint this newsletter granted for non-commercial (not for resale) purposes.

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